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The State of State Reforms in Latin America

By Eduardo Lora
  • ISBN Code: : 9780821365762
  • Publisher : World Bank Publications
  • Pages : 470
  • Category : Political Science
  • Reads : 647
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : the-state-of-state-reforms-in-latin-america.pdf

Book Excerpt :

Latin America suffered a profound state crisis in the 1980s, which prompted not only the wave of macroeconomic and deregulation reforms known as the Washington Consensus, but also a wide variety of institutional or 'second generation' reforms. 'The State of State Reform in Latin America' reviews and assesses the outcomes of these less studied institutional reforms. This book examines four major areas of institutional reform: a. political institutions and the state organization; b. fiscal institutions, such as budget, tax and decentralization institutions; c. public institutions in charge of sectoral economic policies (financial, industrial, and infrastructure); and d. social sector institutions (pensions, social protection, and education). In each of these areas, the authors summarize the reform objectives, describe and measure their scope, assess the main outcomes, and identify the obstacles for implementation, especially those of an institutional nature.

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Book Short Summary:

As countries large and small, rich and poor are drawn inexorably into the global economy, protectionist policies are proving increasingly inefficient and ineffective for driving growth. The countries of Latin America, which have long pursued agendas of state ownership and heavy regulation of key industries, began to institute a series of reforms in the 1980s and 1990s, designed to promote competition and business creation. However, without the legal and institutional framework to support these policies (and thus guarantee resource-efficient behavior on the part of business owners), the record has been spotty at best. Competition Policies in Emerging Economies features in-depth analysis of two key industries—telecommunications and banking—in several Central American nations to shed light on the dynamics of the transition to deregulation and trade liberalization, and learn from the experiences of these economies. This book has a three-fold purpose: (1) to examine the competition conditions and policies of small developing countries of Central America (and hence cover an area where very little information exists); (2) develop an in-depth analysis of regulation and competition policies in two key industrial sectors with poor competition records (telecommunications and banking); (3) link the former results analysis with other international experiences, in order to derive research and policy recommendations that can be applied to other small, developing, and emerging economies. Featuring discussion of political, legal, economic, financial, cultural, and organization-level issues, the book provides unique perspectives on the forces resisting competitive practices and offers suggestions for overcoming them.

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  • Pdf File: national-colors.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The era of official color-blindness in Latin America has come to an end. For the first time in decades, nearly every state in Latin America now asks their citizens to identify their race or ethnicity on the national census. Most observers approvingly highlight the historic novelty of these reforms, but National Colors shows that official racial classification of citizens has a long history in Latin America. Through a comprehensive analysis of the politics and practice of official ethnoracial classification in the censuses of nineteen Latin American states across nearly two centuries, this book explains why most Latin American states classified their citizens by race on early national censuses, why they stopped the practice of official racial classification around mid-twentieth century, and why they reintroduced ethnoracial classification on national censuses at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Beyond domestic political struggles, the analysis reveals that the ways that Latin American states classified their populations from the mid-nineteenth century onward responded to changes in international criteria for how to construct a modern nation and promote national development. As prevailing international understandings of what made a political and cultural community a modern nation changed, so too did the ways that Latin American census officials depicted diversity within national populations. The way census officials described populations in official statistics, in turn, shaped how policymakers viewed national populations and informed their prescriptions for national development--with consequences that still reverberate in contemporary political struggles for recognition, rights, and redress for ethnoracially marginalized populations in today's Latin America.

Policing Insecurity

By Niels Uildriks
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Lexington Books
  • Book Code : 073913230X
  • Total of Pages : 272
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 379
  • Pdf File: policing-insecurity.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Profound distrust commonly characterizes not only the relationship between citizens and state institutions, but also social, as well as inter- and intra-state relations. This impacts the effectiveness and quality of the service provided by state institutions. The degree to which police and judicial reforms are able to generate trust on these fronts is therefore an important yardstick to judge their relevance under varying circumstances of 'post-authoritarian rule', but this question is largely ignored inthe current literature on policing and reform. From this perspective, Policing Insecurity: Police Reform, Security, and Human Rights in Latin America suggests an agenda of future reforms for the region, drawing and building upon policing reform experiences throughout the Latin America, looking at issues such as impunity, professionalization, community policing, as well as accountability and training of the police. By explicitly linking issues of state-social trust, democratic transition, human rights, and security, these case studies provide a basis for the wider discussion in the book about prerequisites for the success or failure of police reforms, thus adding to our empirical and theoretical knowledge in these areas and introducing an importantdimension to the literature on police reform, security, and human rights.

The Emerald Handbook of Public Administration in Latin America

By B. Guy Peters,Carlos Alba Tercedor,Conrado Ramos
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Emerald Group Publishing
  • Book Code : 1839826789
  • Total of Pages : 612
  • Category : Political Science
  • Members : 185
  • Pdf File: the-emerald-handbook-of-public-administration-in-latin-america.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This handbook presents contemporary research on public administration in Latin America. The first section explores the range of administrative systems in existence across the region. The second portion of the book discusses important topics such as public personnel management, accountability and policy coordination in Latin America.

State and Market in Higher Education Reforms

By Hans G. Schuetze,Germán Álvarez Mendiola,Diane Conrad
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Book Code : 946091800X
  • Total of Pages : 235
  • Category : Education
  • Members : 978
  • Pdf File: state-and-market-in-higher-education-reforms.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Universities have never been static. Even so, it is fair to say they have experienced a most radical transformation in the past twenty years. During this period, the role and responsibility of the state generally have been broadly limited while allowing ‘market forces’--private ownership and control--more influence. But even where the state is still the main provider or funder, it relies increasingly on ‘market mechanisms’, for example contractual relations between state and institutions, competition among providers for resources, and external assessment of ‘outputs’ which means the results or impact of what universities do, in particular teaching and research. The new terminology speaks of price and competition, inputs and outputs, resources, cost and benefits, demand and supply, provider and customer, consumers and investors, quality control and accountability. Education, and post-secondary education especially are increasingly seen as matters for markets. Formal post-secondary education becomes a service, commercialized and traded across national borders. This volume on changing relationship between state and market, contains, besides an introductory analytic overview of the issues, accounts from different countries, regions, and thematic perspectives. Chapter authors describe and analyze government reforms and other developments that have directly or indirectly affected this relationship. Although the geographical focus is on North America, especially Mexico, South East Asia and Europe, the phenomenon is not limited to these regions and countries but worldwide.

Handbook of Comparative and Development Public Administration

By Ali Farazmand
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Book Code : 9780203904756
  • Total of Pages : 1160
  • Category : Political Science
  • Members : 540
  • Pdf File: handbook-of-comparative-and-development-public-administration.pdf

Book Short Summary:

With contributions from nearly 80 international experts, this comprehensive resource covers diverse issues, aspects, and features of public administration and policy around the world. It focuses on bureaucracy and bureaucratic politics in developing and industrialized countries and emphasizing administrative performance and policy implementation, as well as political system maintenance and regime enhancement. The book covers the history of public administration and bureaucracy in Persia, Greece, Rome, and Byzantium and among the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas, public administration in small island states, Eastern Europe, and ethics and other contemporary issues in public administration.

Emerging Capital Markets and Globalization

By Augusto de la Torre,Sergio Schmukler
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : World Bank Publications
  • Book Code : 9780821365441
  • Total of Pages : 228
  • Category : Business & Economics
  • Members : 645
  • Pdf File: emerging-capital-markets-and-globalization.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Back in the early 1990s, economists and policy makers had high expectations about the prospects for domestic capital market development in emerging economies, particularly in Latin America. Unfortunately, they are now faced with disheartening results. Stock and bond markets remain illiquid and segmented. Debt is concentrated at the short end of the maturity spectrum and denominated in foreign currency, exposing countries to maturity and currency risk. Capital markets in Latin America look particularly underdeveloped when considering the many efforts undertaken to improve the macroeconomic environment and to reform the institutions believed to foster capital market development. The disappointing performance has made conventional policy recommendations questionable, at best. 'Emerging Capital Markets and Globalization' analyzes where we stand and where we are heading on capital market development. First, it takes stock of the state and evolution of Latin American capital markets and related reforms over time and relative to other countries. Second, it analyzes the factors related to the development of capital markets, with particular interest on measuring the impact of reforms. And third, in light of this analysis, it discusses the prospects for capital market development in Latin America and emerging economies and the implications for the reform agenda.

Economic Development Strategies and the Evolution of Violence in Latin America

By W. Ascher,N. Mirovitskaya
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 1137272694
  • Total of Pages : 280
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 485
  • Pdf File: economic-development-strategies-and-the-evolution-of-violence-in-latin-america.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Economic Development Strategies and the Evolution of Violence in Latin America explores the links between Latin American governments' economic policies and the nature and dynamics of inter-group violence. Based on the patterns of ten countries, the contributions to this volume trace the remarkable transformation from open ideological conflict to the explosion of social (seemingly apolitical) violence, the upsurge of urban crime, and the confrontations over natural resources and drugs across the region spanning from Mexico to Argentina. The variations in economic success and in conflict prevention and transformation can guide policymakers, development professionals, and activists committed to conflict-sensitive development.

Diversity of Capitalisms in Latin America

By Ilán Bizberg
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 3319955373
  • Total of Pages : 362
  • Category : Political Science
  • Members : 515
  • Pdf File: diversity-of-capitalisms-in-latin-america.pdf

Book Short Summary:

“One of the definite merits of this book is to cleverly mix a theoretical breakthrough with a meticulous historical and empirical account of the transformations of some key Latin American countries. First, it is at the frontier of a research agenda initiated back to the end of the 1970s, second it clearly distinguishes between an ideal-type approach and the complexity of any specific national configuration and its transformation in history. Furthermore, the author provides decisive arguments against a pure economic determinism too frequently supposed to govern institutions building and reforms. Last but not least, the book culminates by an impressive analysis of the crises that quite any Latin America society experiences at the end the 2010s.” -Robert Boyer, Institut des Amériques, Paris, France. This book defends the idea that there are significant structural and institutional differences between the countries in Latin America. Building off the results of a four-year research project, Bizberg argues against the idea that in Latin America there is one single type of capitalism—a hierarchical one—that is entangled in a vicious cycle. Rather, there are clusters of countries that have had similar historical trajectories, analogous structures, or comparable reactions to changes to the world economy, but have not all followed the same mode of development. Just as analysts have found a variety of capitalisms in developed countries, it is possible to identify the emergence of different types of capitalism in Latin America since the 1980s debt crisis. These varieties of capitalism are defined according to categories—including the articulation to the world economy, the role of the State, the structure of the political system and the action of civil society—which give rise to distinct wage relations, comprising the industrial relations system and the welfare regime.

Social Movements and Free-Market Capitalism in Latin America

By Sybil Rhodes
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : State University of New York Press
  • Book Code : 0791482588
  • Total of Pages : 242
  • Category : Political Science
  • Members : 960
  • Pdf File: social-movements-and-free-market-capitalism-in-latin-america.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Explores how privatization of state-owned telephone companies led to new consumer movements in Latin America.