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The Pure Theory of Capital

By F. A. Hayek
  • ISBN Code: : 1136748865
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 36
  • Category : Business & Economics
  • Reads : 165
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : the-pure-theory-of-capital.pdf

Book Excerpt :

F. A. Hayek’s long-overlooked volume, was his most detailed work in economic theory. Originally published in 1941 when fashionable economic thought had shifted to John Maynard Keynes, Hayek’s manifesto of capital theory is now available again for today’s students and economists to discover. With a new introduction by Hayek expert Lawrence H. White, who firmly situates the book not only in historical and theoretical context but within Hayek’s own life and his struggle to complete the manuscript, this edition commemorates the celebrated scholar’s last major work in economics. Offering a detailed account of the equilibrium relationships between inputs and outputs in an economy, Hayek’s stated objective was to make capital theory "useful for the analysis of the monetary phenomena of the real world.” His ambitious goal was nothing less than to develop a capital theory that could be fully integrated into the business cycle theory.

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Studies in the Pure Theory of International Trade

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  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 1349014230
  • Total of Pages : 355
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  • Pdf File: studies-in-the-pure-theory-of-international-trade.pdf

Book Short Summary:

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Book Short Summary:

In this new collection of essays, F.A. Hayek traces his intellectual roots to the `Austrian school' of economics and links it to the modern rebirth of classical liberal or `libertarian' thought. There is much new interesting material here for scholars of Hayek: essays on Hayek's early life and on the intellectual climate of Vienna in the early part of the twentieth century; Hayek's opening address to the inaugural meeting of the Mont Pélerin Society and other material from the period when Hayek was playing his part in the revival of liberal thought; Hayek's views on his teachers and on other leading figures in the Austrian school. This is the fourth volume of The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek and the third to appear. This series provides a new standard edition of Hayek's writing - complete, newly ordered and comprehensively annotated. Much of the material in this volume is either previously unpublished or previously unavailable in English.

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  • Publisher : Ludwig von Mises Institute
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A Theory of International Trade Under Uncertainty

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Book Short Summary:

A Theory of International Trade Under Uncertainty analyzes international trade in goods and securities in the presence of uncertainty using an integrated general equilibrium framework that recognizes the dependence of markets for goods on financial markets and vice versa. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated by means of applications to questions such as the effects of international trade on resource allocation, tariff policy, and intervention in financial capital markets. Results which are important for theoretical as well as policy oriented applications are presented. Comprised of 11 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to some of the fundamental elements of the deterministic Ricardian and Heckscher-Ohlin theories of international trade. Relevant elements from the theory of decision making under uncertainty are then discussed, along with the behavior of firms and consumers-investors in an economy with stock markets. Subsequent chapters focus on problems of commercial policy; gains from trade in goods and securities; and issues of intervention in financial capital markets. The book concludes by describing a dynamic model of international trade that contains an infinite horizon and takes into account the trade-off between present period consumption and savings. An example that illustrates an equilibrium structure of the dynamic model is presented. This monograph is intended for economists who are interested in international trade or international finance, including graduate students who specialize in these fields.

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  • Pdf File: essentials-of-economic-theory.pdf

Book Short Summary:

John Bates Clark was an American adherent of the marginalist school who engaged the Austrians and learned from them. He delivered many blows against the historical school in favor of the idea of pure theory. He was also a prominent advocate of free markets in a time when the economics profession was embracing Progressivist ideology. Clark contributed to laying the foundation of what would later become a distinctly American Austrian School. Mises himself regarded him as an outstanding economist, perhaps his favorite American economist.

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Book Short Summary:

This work comprises the major papers of this extraordinary Nobel Laureate in economics. The common concern of the papers included in this volume is economic theory, its structure, uses, and abuses. As the late Harry G. Johnson said: "No one reading this volume can fail to be struck by the depth of scholarship Professor Leontief is capable of deploying and the profundity of his understanding of methodological problems of economic theory, and his critique of the work of other economists."

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Book Short Summary:

How is real capital measured by government statistical agencies? How could this measure be improved to correspond more closely to an economist's ideal measure of capital in economic analysis and prediction? It is possible to construct a single, reliable time series for all capital goods, regardless of differences in vintage, technological complexity, and rates of depreciation? These questions represent the common themes of this collection of papers, originally presented at a 1976 meeting of the Conference on Income and Wealth.

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Book Short Summary:

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the development of economics from its beginnings, at the end of the Middle Ages, up to contemporary developments. It is strong on contemporary theory, providing extensive coverage of the twentieth century, particularly since the Second World War. The second edition has been revised and updated to take account of new developments in economic thought.

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Book Short Summary:

First published in 1978. This book provides a simple, systematic, yet rigorous treatment of the key aspects of the pure theory of international trade and distortions. The opening chapter presents the standard two-factor, two-commodity barter model of international trade and a comprehensive treatment of the important properties and relationships. The rest of the book consists of four sections: parts One and Two are devoted to an analysis of factor market imperfections, and Parts Three and Four consider the trade-theoretical consequences of product market imperfections. A concluding chapter presents some generalised theorems. This book would be of interest to students of economics.

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Conventional theories of capitalism are mired in a deep crisis: after centuries of debate, they are still unable to tell us what capital is. Liberals and Marxists both think of capital as an ‘economic’ entity that they count in universal units of ‘utils’ or ‘abstract labour’, respectively. But these units are totally fictitious. Nobody has ever been able to observe or measure them, and for a good reason: they don’t exist. Since liberalism and Marxism depend on these non-existing units, their theories hang in suspension. They cannot explain the process that matters most – the accumulation of capital. This book offers a radical alternative. According to the authors, capital is not a narrow economic entity, but a symbolic quantification of power. It has little to do with utility or abstract labour, and it extends far beyond machines and production lines. Capital, the authors claim, represents the organized power of dominant capital groups to reshape – or creorder – their society. Written in simple language, accessible to lay readers and experts alike, the book develops a novel political economy. It takes the reader through the history, assumptions and limitations of mainstream economics and its associated theories of politics. It examines the evolution of Marxist thinking on accumulation and the state. And it articulates an innovative theory of ‘capital as power’ and a new history of the ‘capitalist mode of power’.

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  • Pdf File: value-capital-and-growth.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Value, Capital and Growth was written as a mark of honor to Sir John Hicks on the occasion of his retirement as Drummond Professor of Political Economy at the University of Oxford. As the title implies, most of the essays are directed to the development of the three great topics of modern economic theory to which he contributed--Value, Capital, and Growth. More specifically, there are important papers on general equilibrium, aggregation, and index numbers-- all topics of deep interest in international economics. The volume is particularly noteworthy for a number of papers exploring hitherto unrealized implications of general equilibrium models. There are also several papers dealing with mathematical economics as they relate to trade and development, which will be of great interest to students of those fields. Few theorists possessed Hicks catholicity in economics and his interest in and appetite for all branches of applied economics, and especially comparative economic history. His interests ranged from Italian Renaissance banking to academic publishing and the export and import of scholarly works, The international eminence of the contributors and the quality of their work ensure that this volume is a fitting tribute to a great economist and that it will be studied carefully for many years. No effort was spared to present the work in a style and format worthy of the subject and of the occasion. The volume includes masterful contributions by Kenneth Arrow, Jagdish Bhagwati, Roy Harrod, Paul A. Samuelson, Robert M. Solow, and Alan A. Walters among others, and contains a full biographical and bibliographical data base on Hicks. J.N. Wolfe was professor of economics at the University of Edinburgh until his retirement.

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  • Publisher : DigiCat
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  • Pdf File: essentials-of-economic-theory.pdf

Book Short Summary:

"Essentials of Economic Theory: As Applied to Modern Problems of Industry and Public Policy" by John Bates Clark is a must-read for anyone who has ever studied, been fascinated by, or just wondered about economics. The economy may seem like a complicated beast, but Clark's book helps break it down in a way that anyone can understand. Though there may be some differences since the book was initially published, you may be surprised by how similar things are even today.

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  • Pdf File: conceptualizing-capitalism.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A few centuries ago, capitalism set in motion an explosion of economic productivity. Markets and private property had existed for millennia, but what other key institutions fostered capitalism’s relatively recent emergence? Until now, the conceptual toolkit available to answer this question has been inadequate, and economists and other social scientists have been diverted from identifying these key institutions. With Conceptualizing Capitalism, Geoffrey M. Hodgson offers readers a more precise conceptual framework. Drawing on a new theoretical approach called legal institutionalism, Hodgson establishes that the most important factor in the emergence of capitalism—but also among the most often overlooked—is the constitutive role of law and the state. While private property and markets are central to capitalism, they depend upon the development of an effective legal framework. Applying this legally grounded approach to the emergence of capitalism in eighteenth-century Europe, Hodgson identifies the key institutional developments that coincided with its rise. That analysis enables him to counter the widespread view that capitalism is a natural and inevitable outcome of human societies, showing instead that it is a relatively recent phenomenon, contingent upon a special form of state that protects private property and enforces contracts. After establishing the nature of capitalism, the book considers what this more precise conceptual framework can tell us about the possible future of capitalism in the twenty-first century, where some of the most important concerns are the effects of globalization, the continuing growth of inequality, and the challenges to America’s hegemony by China and others.

Pure Time-Preference Theory of Interest, The

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  • Pdf File: pure-time-preference-theory-of-interest-the.pdf

Book Short Summary:

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  • Publisher : Routledge
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  • Pdf File: studies-on-the-abuse-and-decline-of-reason.pdf

Book Short Summary:

"The studies of which this book is the result have from the beginning been guided by and in the end confirmed the somewhat old-fashioned conviction of the author that it is human ideas which govern the development of human affairs," Hayek wrote in his notes in 1940. Indeed, Studies on the Abuse and Decline of Reason remains Hayek’s greatest unfinished work and is here presented for the first time under the expert editorship of Bruce Caldwell. In the book, Hayek argues that the abuse and decline of reason was caused by hubris, by man’s pride in his ability to reason, which in Hayek’s mind had been heightened by the rapid advance and multitudinous successes of the natural sciences, and the attempt to apply natural science methods in the social sciences.

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  • Pdf File: legal-foundations-of-capitalism.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In what has universally been recognized as a classic of institutional economics, John R. Commons combined the skills of a professional economist, the sensibilities of an American historian, and the passion of an active participant in the conflicts of individuals, self-interest of groups, and function of voluntary associations.The aim of this volume is to work out an evolutionary and behavioral theory of value. In order to do so thoroughly, Commons examines the decisions of the courts. Doing so compelled an examination of what the courts mean by reasonable value. Commons found that the answer was tied up with a notion of reasonable conduct. It was Commons who carried the study of the habits and customs of social life to the next stage: the decisions of the courts that are based on custom and that profoundly impact the nature and function of the economic system as such.Reviewing Legal Foundations of Capitalism, Wesley Mitchell declared that Commons carried this "analysis further along his chosen line than any of his predecessors. Into our knowledge of capitalism he has incorporated a great body of new materials which no one else has used adequately." And writing in the same American Economic Review twenty-one years later, Selig Perlman noted that "To Commons the workingmen were not abstract building blocks out of which a favored deity called History was to shape the architecture of the new society, but concrete beings with legitimate ambitions for a higher standard of living and for more dignity in their lives." This edition is graced with a special introduction that places Commons in proper academic as well as intellectual context.

The Death of Human Capital?

By Phillip Brown,Hugh Lauder,Sin Yi Cheung
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  • Book Code : 0190644338
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  • Pdf File: the-death-of-human-capital.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Human capital theory, or the notion that there is a direct relationship between educational investment and individual and national prosperity, has dominated public policy on education and labor for the past fifty years. In The Death of Human Capital?, Phillip Brown, Hugh Lauder, and Sin Yi Cheung argue that the human capital story is one of false promise: investing in learning isn't the road to higher earnings and national prosperity. Rather than abandoning human capital theory, however, the authors redefine human capital in an age of smart machines. They present a new human capital theory that rejects the view that automation and AI will result in the end of waged work, but see the fundamental problem as a lack of quality jobs offering interesting, worthwhile, and rewarding opportunities. A controversial challenge to the reigning ideology, The Death of Human Capital? connects with a growing sense that capitalism is in crisis, felt by students and the wider workforce, shows what's at stake in the new human capital while offering hope for the future.

The Pure Theory of International Trade

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  • Book Code : 135147569X
  • Total of Pages : 467
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  • Pdf File: the-pure-theory-of-international-trade.pdf

Book Short Summary:

There has long been a need for a systematic introduction to the modern pure theory of international trade that would take the student through a careful introduction to the tools of analysis and the main logical propositions into the application of the theory to practical problems of international economic policy. Trade theory should be part and parcel of price theory, distinguished only by the fact that other countries form part of the natural opportunities--and natural constraints--that a country confronts in its efforts to bend nature to its desire to produce utility-yielding goods and services; but its exposition is often confused by the attachment of its expositors to obsolete problems and backward analytical techniques. This book covers in detail classical, neoclassical, and modern theories of international trade, with special attention to problems of equilibrium, growth, and welfare, and discusses the work of all major contributors in this field from Ricardo and Mill through Meade, Heckscher, and Ohlin, to the growth models of Johnson, Solow, and Uzawa. All problems are clearly stated and the easiest and most convenient solutions are sought in each case, with the more technical topics in the field discussed in several chapters and appendixes that may be omitted for less advanced students without interrupting the continuity of the book. The book's coverage is complete and entirely up-to-date. It is written primarily for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in international trade, but it will also serve as an important reference tool for professional economists working in this field and will be of considerable interest to students and practitioners dealing with problems of economic development and international business relationships more generally.

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Book Short Summary:

In the years following its publication, F. A. Hayek's pioneering work on business cycles was regarded as an important challenge to what was later known as Keynesian macroeconomics. Today, as debates rage on over the monetary origins of the current economic and financial crisis, economists are once again paying heed to Hayek's thoughts on the repercussions of excessive central bank interventions. The latest editions in Routledge's ongoing series The Collected Works of F. A. Hayek, these volumes bring together Hayek's work on what causes periods of boom and bust in the economy. Moving away from the classical emphasis on equilibrium, Hayek demonstrates that business cycles are generated by the adaptation of the structure of production to changes in relative demand. Thus, when central banks artificially lower interest rates, the result is a misallocation of capital and the creation of asset bubbles and additional instability. Business Cycles: Part I contains Hayek's two major monographs on the topic: Monetary Theory and the Trade Cycle and Prices and Production. Reproducing the text of the original 1933 translation of the former, this edition also draws on the original German, as well as more recent translations. For Prices and Production, a variorum edition is presented, incorporating the 1931 first edition and its 1935 revision. Business Cycles: Part II assembles a series of Hayek's shorter papers on the topic, ranging from the 1920s to 1981. In addition to bringing together Hayek's work on the evolution of business cycles, the two volumes of Business Cycles also include extensive introductions by Hansjoerg Klausinger, placing the writings in intellectual context, including their reception and the theoretical debates to which they contributed, and providing background on the evolution of Hayek's thought.

Basic Theory of Capitalism

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Natural Capital

By Peter Kareiva,Heather Tallis,Taylor H. Ricketts,Gretchen C. Daily,Stephen Polasky
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Book Short Summary:

In 2005, The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) provided the first global assessment of the world's ecosystems and ecosystem services. It concluded that recent trends in ecosystem change threatened human wellbeing due to declining ecosystem services. This bleak prophecy has galvanized conservation organizations, ecologists, and economists to work toward rigorous valuations of ecosystem services at a spatial scale and with a resolution that can inform public policy. The editors have assembled the world's leading scientists in the fields of conservation, policy analysis, and resource economics to provide the most intensive and best technical analyses of ecosystem services to date. A key idea that guides the science is that the modelling and valuation approaches being developed should use data that are readily available around the world. In addition, the book documents a toolbox of ecosystem service mapping, modeling, and valuation models that both The Nature Conservancy and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) are beginning to apply around the world as they transform conservation from a biodiversity only to a people and ecosystem services agenda. The book addresses land, freshwater, and marine systems at a variety of spatial scales and includes discussion of how to treat both climate change and cultural values when examining tradeoffs among ecosystem services.

Contemporary Economic Theory

By Andriana Vlachou
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  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 1349277142
  • Total of Pages : 263
  • Category : Business & Economics
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  • Pdf File: contemporary-economic-theory.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Leading international scholars challenge neoliberalism on its assumptions, way of reasoning and empirical evidence. In particular, they discuss critically, from the standpoint of radical perspectives, the issues of limiting the state and privatization, inflation and unemployment, and the possibility of a socialist society. They also discuss the current project for the monetary and economic union (EMU) of Europe, considered as an application of neoliberalism. They assess and question the internal market, the common currency and central bank independence; and investigate alternatives to the EMU project and the marketization agenda.

International Economics

By Rajat Acharyya
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  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 0192688529
  • Total of Pages : 657
  • Category : Business & Economics
  • Members : 492
  • Pdf File: international-economics.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Complementing trade theories with relevant trade empirics, this book covers three aspects of the study of International Economics: pure theory of trade, trade policy, and theory of Balance of Payments (BoP) and exchange rate. In the first part, it discusses the basic principles of international trade between dissimilar countries as well as between similar countries, and implications thereof in terms of welfare, income distribution, and growth. The approach taken here is distinctly different from that in most of the existing textbooks on international economics. Instead of model-specific discussions of the basic issues, it discusses the basic principles governing trade, gains from trade, and characteristics of international equilibrium in the context of a general trading environment of open economies. Subsequently, specific models of trade are introduced as alternative theoretical explanations for the basic principles of trade. In the second part, a wide range of policy issues are analysed including unilateral trade restrictions and promotions; reciprocatory trade policy choices through regionalism; product standards that regulate trade between developed and developing countries; and implications of capital inflow, FDI, fragmentation, and global value chains. In the third part, the book discusses different currency and exchange rate regimes and their implications for a country's balance of payments and foreign exchange reserves. Drawing upon the basic theories, it studies expenditure-reducing and expenditure-switching policies to correct for BoP imbalances under a pegged exchange rate regime. Finally, some reflections on the choice of exchange rate regime and optimum currency area wind up discussions of monetary issues in international economics.

Essays in International Economics

By Peter B. Kenen
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  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Book Code : 0691196605
  • Total of Pages : 272
  • Category : Business & Economics
  • Members : 392
  • Pdf File: essays-in-international-economics.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Written form 1957 through 1978 by one of the foremost authorities in the field of international economics, this collection of Peter Kenen's previously published essays deals with issues in the pure theory of international trade, international monetary theory, and international monetary reform. The essays in Part I, "Trade, Tariffs, and Welfare," concern the roles of tangible and human capital in the determination of trade patterns, the joint determination of demand conditions and trade patterns, the gains from international trade, and the effects of migration on economic welfare. Part II, "International Monetary Theory and Policy," contains essays on the theory of gold-exchange standard, the determination of forward exchange rates, the demand for international reserves, economic integration and the delineation of currency areas, and the process of balance of payments adjustment under pegged and floating exchange rates. The essays in Part III, "Monetary Reform and the Dollar," are arranged in chonological order, from 1963 through 1977, and focus on the problems and progress of international monetary reform and on the functioning of the present international monetary system. Peter B. Kenen is Walker Professor of Economics and International Finance at Princeton University. The Princeton Sereies of Collected Essays provides facsimile reprints, in paperback and in cloth, of important articles by leading scholars. Originally published in 1981. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

International Trade and Economic Growth (Collected Works of Harry Johnson)

By Harry G. Johnson
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  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1134622791
  • Total of Pages : 208
  • Category : Business & Economics
  • Members : 180
  • Pdf File: international-trade-and-economic-growth.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The studies collected in this volume embody the results of research conducted in the mid 1950s into various theoretical problems in international economics. They fall into three groups – comparative cost theory, trade and growth and balance of payments theory. This volume consolidates the work of previous theorists and applies mathematically-based logical analysis to theoretical problems of economic policy.

Elgar Companion to Hayekian Economics

By Roger W Garrison,Norman Barry
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
  • Book Code : 0857931113
  • Total of Pages : 416
  • Category : Business & Economics
  • Members : 563
  • Pdf File: elgar-companion-to-hayekian-economics.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Elgar Companion to Hayekian Economics provides an in-depth treatment of Friedrich August von Hayekês economic thought from his technical economics of the 1920s and 1930s to his broader views on the spontaneous order of a free society. Taken togethe

The Structure of Production

By Mark Skousen
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : NYU Press
  • Book Code : 1479869953
  • Total of Pages : 417
  • Category : Business & Economics
  • Members : 327
  • Pdf File: the-structure-of-production.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In 2014, the U. S. government adopted a new quarterly statistic called gross output (GO), the most significance advance in national income accounting since gross domestic product (GDP) was developed in the 1940s. The announcement came as a triumph for Mark Skousen, who advocated GO nearly 25 years ago as an essential macroeconomic tool and a better way to measure the economy and the business cycle. Now it has become an official statistic issued quarterly by the Bureau of Economic Analysis at the U. S. Department of Commerce. In this new revised edition of Structure of Production, Skousen shows why GO is a more accurate and comprehensive measure of the economy because it includes business-to-business transactions that move the supply chain along to final use. (GDP measures the value of finished goods and services only, and omits B-to-B activity.) GO is an attempt to measure spending at all stages of production. Using GO, Skousen demonstrates that the supply-side of the business spending is far more important than consumer spending, is more consistent with economic growth theory, and a better measure of the business cycle.

Business Cycles

By F.A. Hayek
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 0429637985
  • Total of Pages : 350
  • Category : Business & Economics
  • Members : 621
  • Pdf File: business-cycles.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In the years following its publication, F. A. Hayek's pioneering work on business cycles was regarded as an important challenge to what was later known as Keynesian macroeconomics. Today, as debates rage on over the monetary origins of the current economic and financial crisis, economists are once again paying heed to Hayek's thoughts on the repercussions of excessive central bank interventions. The latest editions in Routledge's ongoing series The Collected Works of F. A. Hayek, these volumes bring together Hayek's work on what causes periods of boom and bust in the economy. Moving away from the classical emphasis on equilibrium, Hayek demonstrates that business cycles are generated by the adaptation of the structure of production to changes in relative demand. Thus, when central banks artificially lower interest rates, the result is a misallocation of capital and the creation of asset bubbles and additional instability. Business Cycles: Part I contains Hayek's two major monographs on the topic: Monetary Theory and the Trade Cycle and Prices and Production. Reproducing the text of the original 1933 translation of the former, this edition also draws on the original German, as well as more recent translations. For Prices and Production, a variorum edition is presented, incorporating the 1931 first edition and its 1935 revision. Business Cycles: Part II assembles a series of Hayek's shorter papers on the topic, ranging from the 1920s to 1981. In addition to bringing together Hayek's work on the evolution of business cycles, the two volumes of Business Cycles also include extensive introductions by Hansjoerg Klausinger, placing the writings in intellectual context, including their reception and the theoretical debates to which they contributed, and providing background on the evolution of Hayek's thought.

Explorations in Austrian Economics

By Roger Koppl
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Emerald Group Publishing
  • Book Code : 1848553315
  • Total of Pages : 220
  • Category : Business & Economics
  • Members : 128
  • Pdf File: explorations-in-austrian-economics.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Features papers presented at the inaugural Wirth Institute Conference on the Austrian School of Economics. This work explores issues in economic policy, applied economics, and pure theory from a variety of perspectives.