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The Passport in America

By Craig Robertson
  • ISBN Code: : 0199779899
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Pages : 352
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 256
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : the-passport-in-america.pdf

Book Excerpt :

In today's world of constant identification checks, it's difficult to recall that there was ever a time when "proof of identity" was not a part of everyday life. And as anyone knows who has ever lost a passport, or let one expire on the eve of international travel, the passport has become an indispensable document. But how and why did this form of identification take on such a crucial role? In the first history of the passport in the United States, Craig Robertson offers an illuminating account of how this document, above all others, came to be considered a reliable answer to the question: who are you? Historically, the passport originated as an official letter of introduction addressed to foreign governments on behalf of American travelers, but as Robertson shows, it became entangled in contemporary negotiations over citizenship and other forms of identity documentation. Prior to World War I, passports were not required to cross American borders, and while some people struggled to understand how a passport could accurately identify a person, others took advantage of this new document to advance claims for citizenship. From the strategic use of passport applications by freed slaves and a campaign to allow married women to get passports in their maiden names, to the "passport nuisance" of the 1920s and the contested addition of photographs and other identification technologies on the passport, Robertson sheds new light on issues of individual and national identity in modern U.S. history. In this age of heightened security, especially at international borders, Robertson's The Passport in America provides anyone interested in questions of identification and surveillance with a richly detailed, and often surprising, history of this uniquely important document.

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Book Short Summary:

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  • Pdf File: jews-on-the-frontier.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Winner, 2017 National Jewish Book Award in American Jewish Studies from the Jewish Book Council Finalist, Sami Rohr Prize for Jewish Literature An engaging history of how Jews forged their own religious culture on the American frontier Jews on the Frontier offers a religious history that begins in an unexpected place: on the road. Shari Rabin recounts the journey of Jewish people as they left Eastern cities and ventured into the American West and South during the nineteenth century. It brings to life the successes and obstacles of these travels, from the unprecedented economic opportunities to the anonymity and loneliness that complicated the many legal obligations of traditional Jewish life. Without government-supported communities or reliable authorities, where could one procure kosher meat? Alone in the American wilderness, how could one find nine co-religionists for a minyan (prayer quorum)? Without identity documents, how could one really know that someone was Jewish? Rabin argues that Jewish mobility during this time was pivotal to the development of American Judaism. In the absence of key institutions like synagogues or charitable organizations which had played such a pivotal role in assimilating East Coast immigrants, ordinary Jews on the frontier created religious life from scratch, expanding and transforming Jewish thought and practice. Jews on the Frontier vividly recounts the story of a neglected era in American Jewish history, offering a new interpretation of American religions, rooted not in congregations or denominations, but in the politics and experiences of being on the move. This book shows that by focusing on everyday people, we gain a more complete view of how American religion has taken shape. This book follows a group of dynamic and diverse individuals as they searched for resources for stability, certainty, and identity in a nation where there was little to be found.

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  • Pdf File: the-meritocracy-trap.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A revolutionary new argument from eminent Yale Law professor Daniel Markovits attacking the false promise of meritocracy It is an axiom of American life that advantage should be earned through ability and effort. Even as the country divides itself at every turn, the meritocratic ideal – that social and economic rewards should follow achievement rather than breeding – reigns supreme. Both Democrats and Republicans insistently repeat meritocratic notions. Meritocracy cuts to the heart of who we are. It sustains the American dream. But what if, both up and down the social ladder, meritocracy is a sham? Today, meritocracy has become exactly what it was conceived to resist: a mechanism for the concentration and dynastic transmission of wealth and privilege across generations. Upward mobility has become a fantasy, and the embattled middle classes are now more likely to sink into the working poor than to rise into the professional elite. At the same time, meritocracy now ensnares even those who manage to claw their way to the top, requiring rich adults to work with crushing intensity, exploiting their expensive educations in order to extract a return. All this is not the result of deviations or retreats from meritocracy but rather stems directly from meritocracy’s successes. This is the radical argument that Daniel Markovits prosecutes with rare force. Markovits is well placed to expose the sham of meritocracy. Having spent his life at elite universities, he knows from the inside the corrosive system we are trapped within. Markovits also knows that, if we understand that meritocratic inequality produces near-universal harm, we can cure it. When The Meritocracy Trap reveals the inner workings of the meritocratic machine, it also illuminates the first steps outward, towards a new world that might once again afford dignity and prosperity to the American people.

The Exile's Song

By Sally McKee
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Yale University Press
  • Book Code : 0300224699
  • Total of Pages : 288
  • Category : Biography & Autobiography
  • Members : 534
  • Pdf File: the-exile-s-song.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The extraordinary story of African American composer Edmond D d , raised in antebellum New Orleans, and his remarkable career in France In 1855, Edmond D d , a free black composer from New Orleans, emigrated to Paris. There he trained with France s best classical musicians and went on to spend thirty-six years in Bordeaux leading the city s most popular orchestras. How did this African American, raised in the biggest slave market in the United States, come to compose ballets for one of the best theaters outside of Paris and gain recognition as one of Bordeaux s most popular orchestra leaders? Beginning with his birth in antebellum New Orleans in 1827 and ending with his death in Paris in 1901, Sally McKee vividly recounts the life of this extraordinary man. From the Crescent City to the City of Light and on to the raucous music halls of Bordeaux, this intimate narrative history brings to life the lost world of exiles and travelers in a rapidly modernizing world that threatened to leave the most vulnerable behind.

Border Regimes in Twentieth Century Europe

By Péter Bencsik
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Taylor & Francis
  • Book Code : 100064006X
  • Total of Pages : 184
  • Category : History
  • Members : 581
  • Pdf File: border-regimes-in-twentieth-century-europe.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book offers a comprehensive and comparative analysis of the history of passports, border surveillance, border crossing, and other elements of European border regimes in the twentieth century. Border regime is interpreted widely, including inbound and outbound travels, permanent and temporary movements, distance and local border traffic, borderland fortifications, penalties for borderland offences, and also restrictions of free movement even inside a given country. Based on archival sources from Hungary and the Czech Republic, extensive literature and more than two decades of research, the author distinguishes between two basic border regimes, the restrictive eastern and the permissive western systems, and a transitional zone between them. The historical development of these regimes is discussed in the framework of waves of globalisation and territorialisation. Border Regimes in Twentieth Century Europe offers the first ever systematic comparison of European border regimes for students, scholars, and any readers who are interested in travel history, border studies, globalisation, area studies and twentieth century Europe, including everyday history. By presenting their different historical experiences, the book contributes to a better understanding between old and new member states of the European Union, as well as between member and non-member states.

Helena Normanton and the Opening of the Bar to Women

By Judith Bourne
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Waterside Press
  • Book Code : 1909976326
  • Total of Pages : 264
  • Category : Biography & Autobiography
  • Members : 894
  • Pdf File: helena-normanton-and-the-opening-of-the-bar-to-women.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In this first full-length account of Helena Normanton’s life and career, Judith Bourne tells of her fight to join the Bar of England and Wales and open it up to women. Helena Normanton and the Opening of the Bar to Women describes how her ambition was forged as a child after seeing her mother patronised by a solicitor. It tells how the press were quick to pigeon-hole and harass her, leading to disciplinary proceedings for ‘self-advertising’. Enmeshed in a world of men, Helena Normanton faced a constant struggle to establish herself against a backdrop of prejudice, misogyny and discrimination. The book describes how solicitors, fearful of the unknown, were reluctant to instruct her, leaving her to take on poor person’s cases, dock briefs and those few cases ‘deemed suitable for a woman’. But Helena Normanton was a force to be reckoned with. She was not just the first woman to be admitted to an Inn of Court, hold briefs in the High Court and Old Bailey, and (as one of two women) be made a King’s Counsel, but a prolific author, leading feminist and speaker who entranced audiences at home and abroad. Along with the controversies that eternally surrounded her and her own foibles, this is all contained in this captivating book. Reviews '[ An ] excellent biography of Helena Normanton, brilliantly researched by Judith Bourne... a captivating book for all aspiring barristers to read'-- Phillip Taylor MBE and Elizabeth Taylor of Richmond Green Chambers. ‘Bourne has succeeded in rendering Normanton as a human being, a woman with grit and aspiration, whose experiences were as often disappointing as celebratory in the context of her time and place’-- Professor Mary Jane Mossman (from the Foreword)

World Social Report 2020

By Department of Economic and Social Affairs
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : United Nations
  • Book Code : 9210043677
  • Total of Pages : 216
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 996
  • Pdf File: world-social-report-2020.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This report examines the links between inequality and other major global trends (or megatrends), with a focus on technological change, climate change, urbanization and international migration. The analysis pays particular attention to poverty and labour market trends, as they mediate the distributional impacts of the major trends selected. It also provides policy recommendations to manage these megatrends in an equitable manner and considers the policy implications, so as to reduce inequalities and support their implementation.

Politics of Armenian Migration to North America, 1885-1915

By David Gutman
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Edinburgh University Press
  • Book Code : 1474445268
  • Total of Pages : 264
  • Category : History
  • Members : 371
  • Pdf File: politics-of-armenian-migration-to-north-america-1885-1915.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book tells the story of Armenian migration to North America in the late Ottoman period, and Istanbul's efforts to prevent it. It shows how, just as in the present, migrants in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were forced to travel through clandestine smuggling networks, frustrating the enforcement of the ban on migration. Further, migrants who attempted to return home from sojourns in North America risked debarment at the border and deportation, while the return of migrants who had naturalized as US citizens generated friction between the United States and Ottoman governments. The author sheds light on the relationship between the imperial state and its Armenian populations in the decades leading up to the Armenian genocide. He also places the Ottoman Empire squarely in the middle of global debates on migration, border control and restriction in this period, adding to our understanding of the global historical origins of contemporary immigration politics and other issues of relevance today in the Middle East region, such borders and frontiers, migrants and refugees, and ethno-religious minorities.

Feeling Photography

By Elspeth H. Brown,Thy Phu
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Duke University Press
  • Book Code : 0822377314
  • Total of Pages : 408
  • Category : Photography
  • Members : 278
  • Pdf File: feeling-photography.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This innovative collection demonstrates the profound effects of feeling on our experiences and understanding of photography. It includes essays on the tactile nature of photos, the relation of photography to sentiment and intimacy, and the ways that affect pervades the photographic archive. Concerns associated with the affective turn—intimacy, alterity, and ephemerality, as well as queerness, modernity, and loss—run through the essays. At the same time, the contributions are informed by developments in critical race theory, postcolonial studies, and feminist theory. As the contributors bring affect theory to bear on photography, some interpret the work of contemporary artists, such as Catherine Opie, Tammy Rae Carland, Christian Boltanski, Marcelo Brodsky, Zoe Leonard, and Rea Tajiri. Others look back, whether to the work of the American Pictorialist F. Holland Day or to the discontent masked by the smiles of black families posing for cartes de visite in a Kodak marketing campaign. With more than sixty photographs, including twenty in color, this collection changes how we see, think about, and feel photography, past and present. Contributors. Elizabeth Abel, Elspeth H. Brown, Kimberly Juanita Brown, Lisa Cartwright, Lily Cho, Ann Cvetkovich, David L. Eng, Marianne Hirsch, Thy Phu, Christopher Pinney, Marlis Schweitzer, Dana Seitler, Tanya Sheehan, Shawn Michelle Smith, Leo Spitzer, Diana Taylor

History of the Jews in America

By Peter Wiernik
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : DigiCat
  • Book Code : N.a
  • Total of Pages : 367
  • Category : History
  • Members : 603
  • Pdf File: history-of-the-jews-in-america.pdf

Book Short Summary:

History of the Jews in America is a thorough historical account of Jewish communities in both South and North America starting from the earliest days of Spanish colonization all the way to the beginning of the 20th century. _x000D_ Contents_x000D_ The Participation of Jews in the Discovery of the New World_x000D_ Early Jewish Martyrs Under Spanish Rule in the New World_x000D_ Victims of the Inquisition in Mexico and in Peru_x000D_ Marranos in the Portuguese Colonies_x000D_ The Short-lived Dominion of the Dutch Over Brazil_x000D_ Recife: The First Jewish Community in the New World_x000D_ The Jews in Surinam or Dutch Guiana_x000D_ The Dutch and English West Indies_x000D_ New Amsterdam and New York_x000D_ New England and the Other English Colonies_x000D_ The Religious Aspect of the War of Independence_x000D_ The Participation of Jews in the War of the Revolution_x000D_ The Decline of Newport; Washington and the Jews_x000D_ Other Communities in the First Periods of Independence_x000D_ The Question of Religious Liberty in Virginia and in North Carolina_x000D_ The War of 1812 and the Removal of Jewish Disabilities in Maryland_x000D_ Mordecai Manuel Noah and His Territorialist-Zionistic Plans_x000D_ The First Communities in the Mississippi Valley_x000D_ New Settlements in the Middle West and on the Pacific Coast_x000D_ The Jews in the Early History of Texas_x000D_ Conservative Judaism and Its Stand Against Reform_x000D_ The Discussion About Slavery_x000D_ Lincoln and the Jews_x000D_ Participation of Jews in the Civil War_x000D_ Immigration From Russia Prior to 1880_x000D_ Relations With Russia_x000D_ The Passport Question_x000D_ The American-Jewish Committee_x000D_ The Jews in the Dominion of Canada_x000D_ Jews in South America, Mexico and Cuba

The History of the Jewish People in America

By Peter Wiernik
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : e-artnow
  • Book Code : N.a
  • Total of Pages : 367
  • Category : History
  • Members : 371
  • Pdf File: the-history-of-the-jewish-people-in-america.pdf

Book Short Summary:

History of the Jews in America is a thorough historical account of Jewish communities in both South and North America starting from the earliest days of Spanish colonization all the way to the beginning of the 20th century. Contents The Participation of Jews in the Discovery of the New World Early Jewish Martyrs Under Spanish Rule in the New World Victims of the Inquisition in Mexico and in Peru Marranos in the Portuguese Colonies The Short-lived Dominion of the Dutch Over Brazil Recife: The First Jewish Community in the New World The Jews in Surinam or Dutch Guiana The Dutch and English West Indies New Amsterdam and New York New England and the Other English Colonies The Religious Aspect of the War of Independence The Participation of Jews in the War of the Revolution The Decline of Newport; Washington and the Jews Other Communities in the First Periods of Independence The Question of Religious Liberty in Virginia and in North Carolina The War of 1812 and the Removal of Jewish Disabilities in Maryland Mordecai Manuel Noah and His Territorialist-Zionistic Plans The First Communities in the Mississippi Valley New Settlements in the Middle West and on the Pacific Coast The Jews in the Early History of Texas Conservative Judaism and Its Stand Against Reform The Discussion About Slavery Lincoln and the Jews Participation of Jews in the Civil War Immigration From Russia Prior to 1880 Relations With Russia The Passport Question The American-Jewish Committee The Jews in the Dominion of Canada Jews in South America, Mexico and Cuba