The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind Book

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The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind

By Julian Jaynes
  • ISBN Code: : 0547527543
  • Publisher : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  • Pages : 508
  • Category : Psychology
  • Reads : 233
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : the-origin-of-consciousness-in-the-breakdown-of-the-bicameral-mind.pdf

Book Excerpt :

National Book Award Finalist: “This man’s ideas may be the most influential, not to say controversial, of the second half of the twentieth century.”—Columbus Dispatch At the heart of this classic, seminal book is Julian Jaynes's still-controversial thesis that human consciousness did not begin far back in animal evolution but instead is a learned process that came about only three thousand years ago and is still developing. The implications of this revolutionary scientific paradigm extend into virtually every aspect of our psychology, our history and culture, our religion—and indeed our future. “Don’t be put off by the academic title of Julian Jaynes’s The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. Its prose is always lucid and often lyrical…he unfolds his case with the utmost intellectual rigor.”—The New York Times “When Julian Jaynes . . . speculates that until late in the twentieth millennium BC men had no consciousness but were automatically obeying the voices of the gods, we are astounded but compelled to follow this remarkable thesis.”—John Updike, The New Yorker “He is as startling as Freud was in The Interpretation of Dreams, and Jaynes is equally as adept at forcing a new view of known human behavior.”—American Journal of Psychiatry

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Book Short Summary:

No one knows exactly what happened two thousand years ago in the Holy Land. The four Gospel authors proclaimed their versions, and the fathers of the emerging Christian church trumpeted them to be the Gospel Truth. In The Anatomies of God, the Bible, and Religion, author Donald R. Nuss examines evidence that contravenes what has been accepted for centuries. It asks questions that ministers and priests cannot or will not answer, such as: Is the Bible historically accurate, the word of God, or an amalgam of half truths, myths, and fiction? The result of fifty years of research, The Anatomies of God, the Bible, and Religion serves as a Biblical handbook. Insightful commentary explains how each author of the Old Testament influenced the conduct of the ancient Israelis and how some provided source material for New Testament Gospel authors. Nuss explores the Bibles mystique, reveals its beauty, exposes its blemishes, and analyzes, praises, and criticizes its inconsistencies, contradictions, and mendacity. In this thorough examination, Nuss seeks to explain why religion inspires, elevates, and gives encouragement to many, but incites, irritates, and inflames others.

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Book Short Summary:

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  • Pdf File: the-idea-of-the-brain.pdf

Book Short Summary:

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Book Short Summary:

The Deconstructive Owl of Minerva: An Examination of Schizophrenia through Philosophy, Psychoanalysis and Postmodernism takes as its project the articulation of the language of schizophrenia as it inscribes itself between the self and ‘other.’ It takes into account Georg W. F. Hegel’s account of self-consciousness as a master-slave relation. A reading of Jacques Lacan provides access to the narrative self in terms of the “mirror stage” as the recognition of the self as ‘other’. By a further reading of postmodern theorists, this book shows that what has been named schizophrenia calls for a deconstructive strategy that operates with the divergence between pharmacological treatment and the understanding of the language of the schizophrenic condition. This difference will emphasize language as plural, plurivalent, polyphonic and polylogical. This book, essentially, seeks to circumvent the label of “schizophrenia” and to provide alternative ways to understand schizophrenic language in order to culturally rearticulate its effects in society. Postmodern and deconstructive modes of access to the languages of desire, dispersal, and plurivalence that are associated with schizophrenic conditions can help to open up spaces of understanding that are rendered impossible through symptomatic treatment models.

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Book Short Summary:

The Senses of Scripture reveals the essence of biblical epistemology - the ways in which ancient Israelites thought about and used their sensorium. The theoretical introduction demonstrates that scholars need to liberate themselves from the Western bias that holds a pentasensory paradigm and prioritises the sense of sight. The discussion of the biblical material demonstrates that biblical scholars should follow a similar path. Through examination of associative and contextual patters the author reaches a septasensory model, including sight, hearing, speech, kinaesthesia, touch, taste, and smell. It is further demonstrated that the senses, according to the HB, are a divinely created physical experience, which symbolised human ability to act in a sovereign manner in the world. Despite the lack of a biblical Hebrew term 'sense', it seems that at times the merism sight and hearing serves that matter. Finally, the book discusses the longstanding dispute regarding the primacy of sight vs. hearing, and claims that although there is no strict sensory hierarchy evident in the text, sight holds a central space in biblical epistemology.

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Book Short Summary:

Why did many religious leaders—Moses, Old Testament prophets, Zoroaster—claim they heard divine voices? Why do ancient civilizations exhibit key similarities, e.g., the “living dead” (treating the dead as if they were still alive); “speaking idols” (care and feeding of effigies); monumental mortuary architecture and “houses of gods” (pyramids, ziggurats, temples)? How do we explain strange behavior such as spirit possession, speaking in tongues, channeling, hypnosis, and schizophrenic hallucinations? Are these lingering vestiges of an older mentality? Brian J. McVeigh answers these riddles by updating “bicameralism.” First proposed by the psychologist Julian Jaynes, this theory postulates that an earlier mentality existed: a “human” (the brain’s left hemisphere) heard voices of “gods” or “ancestors” (the brain’s right hemisphere). Therefore, ancient religious texts reporting divine voices were recountings of audiovisual hallucinations—a method of social control when early populations expanded. As growing political economic complexity destabilized god-governed states in the late second millennium BCE, divine voices became inadequate. Eventually, humans had to culturally acquire new cognitive skills (modern religions) to accommodate increasing social pressures: selves replaced the gods and history witnessed an “inward turn.” This psychological interiorization of spiritual experience laid the foundations for the world’s great religions and philosophies that arose in India, China, Greece, and the Middle East in the middle of the first millennium BCE.

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  • Pdf File: the-physical-basis-of-mental-illness.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This accessible volume sets an ambitious goal: to help people better understand the nature of mental illness. The term itself is a problem for most who believe, consciously or not, that individuals have both a mind and a body. Ronald Chase is interested in the roots of this thinking about mental illness, and finds it in philosophical dualism, famously promoted by Rene Descartes in the seventeenth century. Chase believes this perspective contributes to the stigma associated with mental illness, and argues for a different conceptual understanding. He describes and evaluates several alternatives, including behaviorism, physicalism, and functionalism. He also explores whether mental states can be reduced to brain states, and whether mental events cause things to happen. His provocative answers suggest mind-body dualism is outdated and misleading, and some version of physicalism is more likely to help us understand mental illness. Chase presents a concise outline of the science of mental illness, with a focus on schizophrenia, noting that faulty brain development is the fundamental cause of major mental illness. Using detailed, but non-technical language, Chase describes how genes combine with environmental influences to produce changes in brain structures and functions. Chase insists on the need to understand mental illness as a biological phenomenon, yet accepts that people use mental terms and concepts in everyday discourse. This scientifically sound challenge to major assumptions currently in vogue with respect to mental illness will initiate a new dialogue on the subject. It will be important to academics, psychiatric professionals, and those affected by mental illness-victims, family members, and caregivers.

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  • Pdf File: lonely-minds-in-the-universe.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This interdisciplinary book probes the subject of extraterrestrial intelligent life, offering scientific and technological implications, discussing the philosophical and religious connotations and rebuffing pseudo-scientific assertions such as ‘rare earth’. The author discusses such philosophical questions as: What is intelligence? What is consciousness? Should we expect ETIs to be conscious beings? Also discussed is the viability of future astronautics which would enable closer human contact with ETI.

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  • Pdf File: lucid-waking.pdf

Book Short Summary:

There is no problem more baffling to the academic world than the problem of consciousness. It’s fair to say that no academic has any clue at all about what consciousness is. In fact, academics have totally confused it with something radically different, namely sentience. The problem that faces the academic world is the insurmountable one of how you get lifeless, mindless, purposeless objects (material atoms) to manifest subjectivity. It’s a category error to imagine that matter can provide any answers to the foundational issues of mind. Academics believe that to answer the problem of subjectivity is thereby to solve the “hard problem” of consciousness. In fact, the problem of subjectivity (sentience) is totally different from the problem of consciousness. To understand why, simply ponder all of the following statements: 1) animals are sentient but not conscious; 2) human babies are sentient but not conscious; 3) humans who never encountered another human are sentient but not conscious; 4) sleepwalking humans are sentient but not conscious. The problem of sentience is drastically different from the problem of consciousness and if you conflate the two you have immediately set yourself an impossible task, especially if you make any attempt to solve these problems within the framework of materialism (i.e., the ideology of anti-mind). To understand what consciousness actually is, it’s essential to understand the difference, in the world of sleep, between dreaming and lucid dreaming. Exactly the same dichotomy is present in the waking world. A sleepwalker is a person who can do complex tasks – such as riding a motorbike for half an hour – without any consciousness. A conscious version of a sleepwalker engages in what we refer to as “lucid waking”. Lucid waking is the key to consciousness. The fact is that consciousness is not an inherent property of human individuals. It’s not built into them. It’s acquired, just as some people acquire the ability to become lucid dreamers. Since sleepwalkers could do many of the same things as conscious individuals, the question is invited of why consciousness is required at all. If you don't know what consciousness is, how can you expand your consciousness to the maximum? Wouldn't you like to be maximally conscious? Think of the power you would have.

The Secret Teachers of the Western World

By Gary Lachman
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Penguin
  • Book Code : 0698137221
  • Total of Pages : 528
  • Category : Body, Mind & Spirit
  • Members : 474
  • Pdf File: the-secret-teachers-of-the-western-world.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This epic study unveils the esoteric masters who have covertly impacted the intellectual development of the West, from Pythagoras and Zoroaster to the little-known modern icons Jean Gebser and Schwaller de Lubicz. Running alongside the mainstream of Western intellectual history there is another current which, in a very real sense, should take pride of place, but which for the last few centuries has occupied a shadowy, inferior position, somewhere underground. This "other" stream forms the subject of Gary Lachman’s epic history and analysis, The Secret Teachers of the Western World. In this clarifying, accessible, and fascinating study, the acclaimed historian explores the Western esoteric tradition – a thought movement with ancient roots and modern expressions, which, in a broad sense, regards the cosmos as a living, spiritual, meaningful being and humankind as having a unique obligation and responsibility in it. The historical roots of our “counter tradition,” as Lachman explores, have their beginning in Alexandria around the time of Christ. It was then that we find the first written accounts of the ancient tradition, which had earlier been passed on orally. Here, in this remarkable city, filled with teachers, philosophers, and mystics from Egypt, Greece, Asia, and other parts of the world, in a multi-cultural, multi-faith, and pluralistic society, a synthesis took place, a creative blending of different ideas and visions, which gave the hidden tradition the eclectic character it retains today. The history of our esoteric tradition roughly forms three parts: Part One: After looking back at the earliest roots of the esoteric tradition in ancient Egypt and Greece, the historical narrative opens in Alexandria in the first centuries of the Christian era. Over the following centuries, it traces our “other” tradition through such agents as the Hermeticists; Kabbalists; Gnostics; Neoplatonists; and early Church fathers, among many others. We examine the reemergence of the lost Hermetic books in the Renaissance and their influence on the emerging modern mind. Part Two begins with the fall of Hermeticism in the late Renaissance and the beginning of “the esoteric counterculture.” In 1614, the same year that the Hermetic teachings fell from grace, a strange document appeared in Kassel, Germany announcing the existence of a mysterious fraternity: the Rosicrucians. Part two charts the impact of the Rosicrucians and the esoteric currents that followed, such as the Romance movement and the European occult revival of the late nineteenth century, including Madame Blavatsky and the opening of the western mind to the wisdom of the East, and the fin-de-siècle occultism of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Part Three chronicles the rise of “modern esotericism,” as seen in the influence of Rudolf Steiner, Gurdjieff, Annie Besant, Krishnamurti, Aleister Crowley, R. A Schwaller de Lubicz, and many others. Central is the life and work of C.G. Jung, perhaps the most important figure in the development of modern spirituality. The book looks at the occult revival of the “mystic sixties” and our own New Age, and how this itself has given birth to a more critical, rigorous investigation of the ancient wisdom. With many detours and dead ends, we now seem to be slowly moving into a watershed. It has become clear that the dominant, left-brain, reductionist view, once so liberating and exciting, has run out of steam, and the promise of that much-sought-after “paradigm change” seems possible. We may be on the brink of a culminating moment of the esoteric intellectual tradition of the West.

The Meaning of Superhero Comic Books

By Terrence R. Wandtke
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : McFarland
  • Book Code : 0786490152
  • Total of Pages : 270
  • Category : Literary Criticism
  • Members : 486
  • Pdf File: the-meaning-of-superhero-comic-books.pdf

Book Short Summary:

For decades, scholars have been making the connection between the design of the superhero story and the mythology of the ancient folktale. Moving beyond simple comparisons and common explanations, this volume details how the workings of the superhero comics industry and the conventions of the medium have developed a culture like that of traditional epic storytelling. It chronicles the continuation of the oral/traditional culture of the early 20th century superhero industry in the endless variations on Superman and shows how Frederic Wertham’s anti-comic crusade in the mid–1950s helped make comics the most countercultural new medium of the 20th century. By revealing how contemporary superhero comics, like Geoff Johns’ Green Lantern and Warren Ellis’s The Authority, connect traditional aesthetics and postmodern theories, this work explains why the superhero comic book flourishes in the “new traditional” shape of our acutely self-conscious digital age.

The Joy of Reading

By Charles Van Van Doren
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Sourcebooks, Inc.
  • Book Code : 1402234376
  • Total of Pages : 544
  • Category : Literary Criticism
  • Members : 291
  • Pdf File: the-joy-of-reading.pdf

Book Short Summary:

"Charles Van Doren has laid a feast before all of us that is irresistible." -Mortimer J. Adler This engaging love letter to reading follows the great authors and classics that transformed the world: from Aristotle and Herodotus in ancient Greece to Salinger and Heinlein in 20th century America. Like a professor whose enthusiasm enwraps his students, Van Doren explains what's wonderful in the books you've missed and awakens your desire to reopen the books you already know. Divided chronologically by the periods in which these classics were written, each book is put in its historical context and brought to life by Van Doren's brilliant analysis. The Joy of Reading delves into a wide range of genres-fiction, poetry, drama, children's books, philosophy, history and science. This is the one book that brings together everything you need to know about the classics you missed and ignites your passion to read and reread the greatest books the world has ever known. This book is the fruit of a lifelong love affair. Reading, I believe, is my favorite thing to do; books and I have been inseparable almost as long as I can remember ... To this day, I become distressed if I am anywhere without a book, a magazine, a newspaper, any scrap of paper to read .... I like the smell of books, certainly the feel of them. Life without books would be, for me, a vacant horror." -Charles Van Doren "Nothing recommends the joy of reading better than the communication of it by a person who has spent a lifetime enriched by the delights of reading. Charles Van Doren is that kind of reader. He has laid a feast before us that is irresistible." -Mortimer J. Adler, author of How to Read a Book "Mr. Van Doren is that rarity, a truly well read man who reads not for professional purposes but for pleasure. His book spurs us on to explore more deeply and joyfully the infinitely varied terrain of good books." -Clifton Fadiman, author of The New Lifetime Reading Plan: The Classical Guide to World Literature

Consciousness

By Andrea Eugenio Cavanna,Andrea Nani
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 3662440881
  • Total of Pages : 203
  • Category : Medical
  • Members : 401
  • Pdf File: consciousness.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book reviews some of the most important scientific and philosophical theories concerning the nature of mind and consciousness. Current theories on the mind-body problem and the neural correlates of consciousness are presented through a series of biographical sketches of the most influential thinkers across the fields of philosophy of mind, psychology and neuroscience. The book is divided into two parts: the first is dedicated to philosophers of mind and the second, to neuroscientists/experimental psychologists. Each part comprises twenty short chapters, with each chapter being dedicated to one author. A brief introduction is given on his or her life and most important works and influences. The most influential theory/ies developed by each author are then carefully explained and examined with the aim of scrutinizing the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches to the nature of consciousness.

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

By Tim Bayne,Axel Cleeremans,Patrick Wilken
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Book Code : 0191021032
  • Total of Pages : 670
  • Category : Psychology
  • Members : 534
  • Pdf File: the-oxford-companion-to-consciousness.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Consciousness is undoubtedly one of the last remaining scientific mysteries and hence one of the greatest contemporary scientific challenges. How does the brain's activity result in the rich phenomenology that characterizes our waking life? Are animals conscious? Why did consciousness evolve? How does science proceed to answer such questions? Can we define what consciousness is? Can we measure it? Can we use experimental results to further our understanding of disorders of consciousness, such as those seen in schizophrenia, delirium, or altered states of consciousness? These questions are at the heart of contemporary research in the domain. Answering them requires a fundamentally interdisciplinary approach that engages not only philosophers, but also neuroscientists and psychologists in a joint effort to develop novel approaches that reflect both the stunning recent advances in imaging methods as well as the continuing refinement of our concepts of consciousness. In this light, the Oxford Companion to Consciousness is the most complete authoritative survey of contemporary research on consciousness. Five years in the making and including over 250 concise entries written by leaders in the field, the volume covers both fundamental knowledge as well as more recent advances in this rapidly changing domain. Structured as an easy-to-use dictionary and extensively cross-referenced, the Companion offers contributions from philosophy of mind to neuroscience, from experimental psychology to clinical findings, so reflecting the profoundly interdisciplinary nature of the domain. Particular care has been taken to ensure that each of the entries is accessible to the general reader and that the overall volume represents a comprehensive snapshot of the contemporary study of consciousness. The result is a unique compendium that will prove indispensable to anyone interested in consciousness, from beginning students wishing to clarify a concept to professional consciousness researchers looking for the best characterization of a particular phenomenon.

Beyond the Fourth Heritage

By Emmanuel S. Kirunda
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : AuthorHouse
  • Book Code : 1524617032
  • Total of Pages : 402
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 751
  • Pdf File: beyond-the-fourth-heritage.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A unique blend of memoir, academic treatise and self-help, the book is optimistic, open and honest in its approach and will educate and move you to tap into the often ignored sense that you are destined for and capable of something far greater. What happens when you are finally comfortable with the choice of your dominant heritage of birth? Whether it is the tribal, national or religious heritage, what then? The author answers this question, by arguing that the next logical step is for each of us to become co-creators beyond the comforts of our heritages of birth. If we each dont transcend our first heritages, we sabotage our self-actualization and forfeit our natural obligation to leave the world a better place than we found it. And it results in continued fracture of self-identity and society as a whole.

Muses, Madmen, and Prophets

By Daniel B. Smith
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Penguin
  • Book Code : 1101202122
  • Total of Pages : 272
  • Category : Psychology
  • Members : 322
  • Pdf File: muses-madmen-and-prophets.pdf

Book Short Summary:

An inquiry into hearing voices-one of humanity's most profound phenomena Auditory hallucination is one of the most awe-inspiring, terrifying, and ill- understood tricks of which the human psyche is capable. In the age of modern medical science, we have relegated this experience to nothing more than a biological glitch. Yet as Daniel B. Smith puts forth in Muses, Madmen, and Prophets, some of the greatest thinkers, leaders, and prophets in history heard, listened to, and had dialogues with voices inside their heads. In a fascinating quest for understanding, Smith examines the history of this powerful phenomenon, and delivers a ringing defense of the validity of unusual human experiences.

Out of the Cocoon

By John William Kuckuk
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : iUniverse
  • Book Code : 9781469745152
  • Total of Pages : 348
  • Category : History
  • Members : 193
  • Pdf File: out-of-the-cocoon.pdf

Book Short Summary:

An attempt at a new story of our emergence from the violence of the ancient cities. Those cities spun the cocoon in which our civilization matured. The human self is like a butterfly emerging from its cocoon. In this study author and religious scholar John William Kuckuk traces the path of human evolution and what it means for the world today. He examines the advantages our ancestors had that helped them survive, considering how the brain developed. From Greek and biblical beginnings the human self grew more self-conscious as Europe developed. Through the Renaissance, the late Middle Ages, the Reformation and the Enlightenment, our culture developed a new appreciation of the human self. He also relates how philosophy, media, and religion steered the course of Western history and how culture continues to evolve. The complex dynamics among species, peoples, and schools of thought have led to violence, misunderstandings, and the repression of the human spirit. As humanity continues to evolve, we can work toward a better future by understanding our past.

Awakening the Planetary Mind

By Barbara Hand Clow
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Book Code : 1591439388
  • Total of Pages : 352
  • Category : Body, Mind & Spirit
  • Members : 334
  • Pdf File: awakening-the-planetary-mind.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Completing our conscious evolution by releasing our collective fear of catastrophes • Explains how we are on the cusp of an era of incredible creative growth • Shows how we are about to overcome the collective fear caused by ancient catastrophes as we awaken to the memories of our lost prehistory • Examines legendary cataclysms and scientific evidence of a highly advanced global culture that disappeared 11,500 years ago In this completely revised and expanded edition of Catastrophobia, bestselling author Barbara Hand Clow explains how we are on the cusp of an age of incredible creative growth made possible by restoring our lost prehistory. Examining legendary cataclysms--such as the fall of Atlantis and the biblical Flood--and the mounting geological and archaeological evidence that many of these mythic catastrophes were actual events, she reveals the existence of a highly advanced global maritime culture that disappeared amid great earth changes and rising seas 14,000 to 11,500 years ago, nearly causing our species’ extinction and leaving humanity’s collective psyche deeply scarred. Tracing humanity’s reemergence after these prehistoric catastrophes, Clow explains how these events in the deep past influence our consciousness today. Guided by Carl Johan Calleman’s analysis of the Mayan Calendar, she reveals that as the Earth’s 26,000-year precessional cycle shifts, our evolution is accelerating to prepare us for a new age of harmony and peace. She explains how we are beginning a collective healing as ancient memories of prehistory awaken in our minds and release our unprocessed fear. Passed from generation to generation, this fear has been responsible for our constant expectations of apocalypse. She shows that by remembering and moving beyond the trauma of our long lost past, we bring the era of cataclysms to an end and cross the threshold into a time of extraordinary creative activity.