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The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic

By Alex Malpass,Marianna Antonutti Marfori
  • ISBN Code: : 1472507177
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Pages : 256
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 670
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : the-history-of-philosophical-and-formal-logic.pdf

Book Excerpt :

The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic introduces ideas and thinkers central to the development of philosophical and formal logic. From its Aristotelian origins to the present-day arguments, logic is broken down into four main time periods: Antiquity and the Middle Ages (Aristotle and The Stoics) The early modern period (Bolzano, Boole) High modern period (Frege, Peano & Russell and Hilbert) Early 20th century (Godel and Tarski) Each new time frame begins with an introductory overview highlighting themes and points of importance. Chapters discuss the significance and reception of influential works and look at historical arguments in the context of contemporary debates. To support independent study, comprehensive lists of primary and secondary reading are included at the end of chapters, along with exercises and discussion questions. By clearly presenting and explaining the changes to logic across the history of philosophy, The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic constructs an easy-to-follow narrative. This is an ideal starting point for students looking to understand the historical development of logic.

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  • Pdf File: medieval-formal-logic.pdf

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Central topics in medieval logic are here treated in a way that is congenial to the modern reader, without compromising historical reliability. The achievements of medieval logic are made available to a wider philosophical public then the medievalists themselves. The three genres of logica moderna arising in a later Middle Ages are covered: obligations, insolubles and consequences - the first time these have been treated in such a unified way. The articles on obligations look at the role of logical consistence in medieval disputation techniques. Those on insolubles concentrate on medieval solutions to the Liar Paradox. There is also a systematic account of how medieval authors described the logical content of an inference, and how they thought that the validity of an inference could be guaranteed.

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It is common to consider an area of science as a system of real or sup posed truths which not only continuously extends itself, but also needs periodical revision and therefore tests the inventive capacity of each generation of scholars anew. It sounds highly implausible that a science at one time would be completed, that at that point within its scope there would be no problems left to solve. Indeed, the solution of a scientific problem inevitably raises new questions, so that our eagerness for knowledge will never find lasting satisfaction. Nevertheless there is one science which seems to form an exception to this rule, formal logic, the theory of rigorous argumentation. It seems to have reached the ideal endpoint of every scientific aspiration already very shortly after its inception; using the work of some predecessors, Aristotle, or so it is at least assumed by many, has brought this branch of science once and for all to a conclusion. Of course this doesn't sound that implausible. We apparently know what rigorous argumentation is; otherwise various sciences, in particular pure mathematics, would be completely impossible. And if we know what rigorous argumentation is, then it cannot be difficult to trace once and for all the rules which govern it. The unique subject of formal logic would therefore entail that this science, in variance with the rule which holds for all other sciences, has been able to reach completion at a certain point in history.

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The achievements of science and technology during the past century are unparalleled in history. They provide the potential for the solution to all the problems faced by the planet, and equally for its total destruction. Allegedly scientific theories are being used to "prove" that criminality is caused, not by social conditions, but by a "criminal gene". Black people are alleged to be disadvantaged, not because of discrimination, but because of their genetic make-up. Of course, such "science" is highly convenient to right-wing politicians intent on ruthlessly cutting welfare. In the field of theoretical physics and cosmology there is a growing tendency towards mysticism. The "Big Bang" theory of the origin of the universe is being used to justify the existence of a Creator, as in the book of Genesis . For the first time in centuries, science appears to lend credence to religious obscurantism. Yet this is only one side of the story.

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Book Short Summary:

Logic is essential to correct reasoning and also has important theoretical applications in philosophy, computer science, linguistics, and mathematics. This book provides an exceptionally clear introduction to classical logic, with a unique approach that emphasizes both the hows and whys of logic. Here Nicholas Smith thoroughly covers the formal tools and techniques of logic while also imparting a deeper understanding of their underlying rationales and broader philosophical significance. In addition, this is the only introduction to logic available today that presents all the major forms of proof--trees, natural deduction in all its major variants, axiomatic proofs, and sequent calculus. The book also features numerous exercises, with solutions available on an accompanying website. Logic is the ideal textbook for undergraduates and graduate students seeking a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the subject. Provides an essential introduction to classical logic Emphasizes the how and why of logic Covers both formal and philosophical issues Presents all the major forms of proof--from trees to sequent calculus Features numerous exercises, with solutions available at http://njjsmith.com/philosophy/lawsoftruth/ The ideal textbook for undergraduates and graduate students

The Metaphysics

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Book Short Summary:

The ancient Greek thinker refutes skepticism, demonstrates God's existence, compares metaphysics to the other sciences, elucidates the nature of the infinite, and explores other major philosophical issues.

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Book Short Summary:

I. Towards Philosophy Jan Srzednicki 3 LOGICAL CONCERNS OF PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS Jerzy Perzanowski ONTOLOGIES AND ONTOLOGICS 23 Elizabeth Anscombe TRUTH, SENSE AND ASSERTION, OR: WHAT PLATO SHOULD HAVE TOLD THE SOPHISTS 43 Peter Geach IDENTITY OVER TIME 47 Joseph M. Font, Ventura Verdu 53 TWO LEVELS OF MODALITY: AN ALGEBRAIC APPROACH Boguslaw Wolniewicz 63 ELZENBERG'S LOGIC OF VALUES Jerzy Szymura WHEN MAY G.E. MOORE'S DEFINITION OF AN INTERNAL RELATION BE USED RATIONALLY? 71 II. Historical Perspective J6zef M. Bochenski HISTORY OF LOGIC AND THE CRITERIA OF RATIONALITY 85 Jan Waszkiewicz, Agnieszka Wojciechowska ON THE ORIGIN OF REDUCTIO AD ABSURDUM 87 vi CONTENTS Ewa ~arnecka-Bialy PREMONITION OF MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN ARISTOTLE'S PRIOR ANALYTICS 97 Leopold Regner "IMPOSSIBlLIA" OF SIGER OF BRABANT 107 Tomasz Weber DEFENDING THESES IN MATHEMATICS AT A 19TH CENTURY UNIVERSITY 113 Gerhardt PlBchl BASIC NORM AND METALANGUAGE. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF KELSEN'S IDEAS 125 m. Logic and Natural Language Marek Tokarz EARLY SYSTEMS OF FORMAL PRAGMATICS 151 Barbara Stanosz DEDUCTION AND THE CONCEPT OF ASSERTION 159 Helmut Metzler METHODOLOGICAL INTERDEPENDENCIES BETWEEN CONCEPTUALIZATION AND OPERATIONALIZATION IN EMPIRICAL SOCIAL SCIENCES 167 Jaroslaw Fall GAME-THEORETICAL SEMANTICS APPLIED TO DEFINITE DESCRIPTIONS AND ANAPHORA 177 Karl-Heinz Krampitz ON LOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ORDINARY SENTENCES 191 Anna Madarasz GAME THEORETICAL SEMANTICS WITH VALUE-GAPS AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS 199 Andrzej Lachwa THE SEMANTIC AND FORMAL CONNECTIONS BETWEEN TEXT COMPONENTS 221 Index of Names 227 L. . ::1. . ~t G. Elizabeth ANSCOMBE - University of Cambridge, England J6zef M.

The Logic in Philosophy of Science

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Book Short Summary:

Major figures of twentieth-century philosophy were enthralled by the revolution in formal logic, and many of their arguments are based on novel mathematical discoveries. Hilary Putnam claimed that the Löwenheim-Skølem theorem refutes the existence of an objective, observer-independent world; Bas van Fraassen claimed that arguments against empiricism in philosophy of science are ineffective against a semantic approach to scientific theories; W. V. O. Quine claimed that the distinction between analytic and synthetic truths is trivialized by the fact that any theory can be reduced to one in which all truths are analytic. This book dissects these and other arguments through in-depth investigation of the mathematical facts undergirding them. It presents a systematic, mathematically rigorous account of the key notions arising from such debates, including theory, equivalence, translation, reduction, and model. The result is a far-reaching reconceptualization of the role of formal methods in answering philosophical questions.

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Book Short Summary:

Perfect for students with no background in logic or philosophy, Simple Formal Logic provides a full system of logic adequate to handle everyday and philosophical reasoning. By keeping out artificial techniques that aren’t natural to our everyday thinking process, Simple Formal Logic trains students to think through formal logical arguments for themselves, ingraining in them the habits of sound reasoning. Simple Formal Logic features: a companion website with abundant exercise worksheets, study supplements (including flashcards for symbolizations and for deduction rules), and instructor’s manual two levels of exercises for beginning and more advanced students a glossary of terms, abbreviations and symbols. This book arose out of a popular course that the author has taught to all types of undergraduate students at Loyola University Chicago. He teaches formal logic without the artificial methods–methods that often seek to solve farfetched logical problems without any connection to everyday and philosophical argumentation. The result is a book that teaches easy and more intuitive ways of grappling with formal logic–and is intended as a rigorous yet easy-to-follow first course in logical thinking for philosophy majors and non-philosophy majors alike.

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  • Total of Pages : 576
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Book Short Summary:

This edited volume is a comprehensive presentation of views on the relations between metaphysics and logic from Aristotle through twentieth century philosophers who contributed to the return of metaphysics in the analytic tradition. The collection combines interest in logic and its history with interest in analytical metaphysics and the history of metaphysical thought. By so doing, it adds both to the historical understanding of metaphysical problems and to contemporary research in the field. Throughout the volume, essays focus on metaphysica generalis, or the systematic study of the most general categories of being. Beginning with Aristotle and his Categories , the volume goes on to trace metaphyscis and logic through the late ancient and Arabic traditions, examining the views of Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, and William Ockham. Moving into the early modern period, contributors engage with Leibniz's metaphysics, Kant's critique of metaphysics, the relation between logic and ontology in Hegel, and Bolzano's views. Subsequent chapters address: Charles S. Peirce's logic and metaphysics; the relevance of set-theory to metaphysics; Meinong's theory of objects; Husserl's formal ontology; early analytic philosophy; C.I. Lewis and his relation to Russell; and the relations between Frege, Carnap, and Heidegger. Surveying metaphysics through to the contemporary age, essays explore W.V. Quine's attitude towards metaphysics; Wilfrid Sellars's relation to antidescriptivism as it connects to Kripke's; the views of Putnam and Kaplan; Peter F. Strawson's and David M. Armstrong's metaphysics; Trope theory; and its relation to Popper's conception of three worlds. The volume ends with a chapter on transcendental philosophy as ontology. In each chapter, contributors approach their topics not merely in an historical and exegetical fashion, but also engage critically with the thought of the philosophers whose work they discuss, offering synthesis and original philosophical thought in the volume, in addition to very extensive and well-informed analysis and interpretation of important philosophical texts. The volume will serve as an essential reference for scholars of metaphysics and logic.

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By D.P. Henry
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  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 0429594240
  • Total of Pages : 146
  • Category : History
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  • Pdf File: medieval-logic-and-metaphysics.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Originally published in 1972, Medieval Logic and Metaphysics shows how formal logic can be used in the clarification of philosophical problems. An elementary exposition of Leśniewski’s Onotology, an important system of contemporary logic, is followed by studies of central philosophical themes such as Negation and Non-being, Essence and Existence, Meaning and Reference, Part and Whole. Philosophers and theologians discussed include St Anselm, St Thomas Aquinas, Abelard, Ockham, Scotus, Hume and Russell.

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This introduction to mathematical logic explores philosophical issues and Gödel's Theorem. Its widespread influence extends to the author of Gödel, Escher, Bach, whose Pulitzer Prize–winning book was inspired by this work.

The Philosophy of Susanne Langer

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Book Code : 1350030570
  • Total of Pages : 400
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  • Pdf File: the-philosophy-of-susanne-langer.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book is a comprehensive study of one of the most insightful and fertile but also most neglected philosophers of the twentieth century, Susanne Langer. Failure to recognise Langer's seminal philosophical sources has led to frequent misinterpretations and misunderstandings of her unique philosophical thought. Beginning with an overview of Langer's life and education, this study provides a much-needed explanation of how Langer's thinking was shaped by four seminal sources: her mentors Henry Sheffer and Alfred North Whitehead and the European philosophers Ernst Cassirer and Ludwig Wittgenstein. Langer's ability to unite seemingly disparate fields such logic, art, and embodied cognition around the notion of symbolic form, places aesthetics not at the margins of philosophy but at its very centre. By locating Langer's work in the broader context of major developments in twentieth-century European and American philosophy, Dengerink Chaplin shows how she was often ahead of her time. Shedding new light on Langer as an American philosopher whose innovative thought crosses the customary boundaries between analytic and continental philosophy, this book confirms why she continues to have relevance today.

Future Logic

By Avi Sion
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  • Publisher : Avi Sion
  • Book Code : 2970009102
  • Total of Pages : 466
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 324
  • Pdf File: future-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Future Logic is an original and wide-ranging treatise of formal logic. It deals with deduction and induction, of categorical and conditional propositions, involving the natural, temporal, extensional, and logical modalities. This is the first work ever to strictly formalize the inductive processes of generalization and particularization, through the novel methods of factorial analysis, factor selection and formula revision. This is the first work ever to develop a formal logic of the natural, temporal and extensional types of conditioning (as distinct from logical conditioning), including their production from modal categorical premises.

Two Soviet Studies on Frege

By B.V. Birjukov
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  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Book Code : 940103611X
  • Total of Pages : 102
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 266
  • Pdf File: two-soviet-studies-on-frege.pdf

Book Short Summary:

1 The significance of the two papers by B. V. Birjukov on Frege within Soviet studies on logic and its history is indicated by G. 1. Ruzavin and P. V. Tavanec in their article 'Fundamental Periods in the Evolution of Formal Logic' in the collective volume Philo 2 sophical Questions of Contemporary Formal Logic. There (page 18) while the organization of "systematic studies on history of logic" is proposed as "one of the fundamental tasks for Marxist logicians", reference is made to a series of recent publications which suggest that such a task is already being accomplished. These are A. S. 3 Axmanov's The Logical Doctrine of Aristotle , v. F. Asmus' 'Criticism of the Bourgeois Idealist Logical Doctrine in the Era of Imperia lism'4, in Voprosy Logiki (Logical Questions), P. S. Popov's A 5 History of Modern Logic and B. V. Birjukov's 'G. Frege's Theory of Sense' in the collective work Applications of Logic in Science and 6 Technology. In this book, published by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, in a printing of 10 000 copies, Birjukov's article fills 56 pages. Before this one, however, Birjukov published another study on Frege: 'On Frege's Works on Philosophical Problems of Mathe matics' in the collective volume Philosophical Questions of Natural Sciences 7, published in a printing of 8000 copies by the Moscow University Press. This article fills 45 pages.

Hegel and the History of Philosophy

By J.J. O'Malley,K.W. Algozin,F.G. Weiss
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  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Book Code : 9401016577
  • Total of Pages : 242
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 970
  • Pdf File: hegel-and-the-history-of-philosophy.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The papers published here were given at the second biennial conference of the Hegel Society of America, held at the University of Notre Dame, November 9-11, 1972. They appear in an order which reflects roughly two headings: (1) Hegel's conception of the history of philosophy in general, and (2) his relation to individual thinkers both before and after him. Given the importance of the history of philosophy for Hegel, and the far-reaching impact of his thought upon subsequent philosophy, it becomes immediately apparent that we have here only a beginning. At the conference, cries went up "Why not Hegel and Aristotle, Aquinas, HusserI and Hart mann?" Indeed, why not? The answer, of course, might be given by Hegel himself : if we wish to accomplish anything, we have to limit ourselves. We trust that future conferences and scholarship will bring to light these relationships and the many more which testify to Hegel's profound presence in the mainstream of past and present thought. It is furthermore no accident that the renaissance of Hegelian studies has brought with it a rebirth of the history of philosophy as something relevant to our own problems. For Hegel, the object of philosophy is alone the truth, the history of philosophy is philosophy itself, and this truth which it gives us cannot be what has passed away.

The History of Continental Philosophy

By Alan D. Schrift
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  • Publisher : University of Chicago Press
  • Book Code : 0226740498
  • Total of Pages : 3035
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 415
  • Pdf File: the-history-of-continental-philosophy.pdf

Book Short Summary:

From Kant to Kierkegaard, from Hegel to Heidegger, continental philosophers have indelibly shaped the trajectory of Western thought since the eighteenth century. Although much has been written about these monumental thinkers, students and scholars lack a definitive guide to the entire scope of the continental tradition. The most comprehensive reference work to date, this eight-volume History of Continental Philosophy will both encapsulate the subject and reorient our understanding of it. Beginning with an overview of Kant’s philosophy and its initial reception, the History traces the evolution of continental philosophy through major figures as well as movements such as existentialism, phenomenology, hermeneutics, and poststructuralism. The final volume outlines the current state of the field, bringing the work of both historical and modern thinkers to bear on such contemporary topics as feminism, globalization, and the environment. Throughout, the volumes examine important philosophical figures and developments in their historical, political, and cultural contexts. The first reference of its kind, A History of Continental Philosophy has been written and edited by internationally recognized experts with a commitment to explaining complex thinkers, texts, and movements in rigorous yet jargon-free essays suitable for both undergraduates and seasoned specialists. These volumes also elucidate ongoing debates about the nature of continental and analytic philosophy, surveying the distinctive, sometimes overlapping characteristics and approaches of each tradition. Featuring helpful overviews of major topics and plotting road maps to their underlying contexts, A History of Continental Philosophy is destined to be the resource of first and last resort for students and scholars alike.

Philosophical Introduction to Set Theory

By Stephen Pollard
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Courier Dover Publications
  • Book Code : 0486805824
  • Total of Pages : 192
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Members : 281
  • Pdf File: philosophical-introduction-to-set-theory.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This unique approach maintains that set theory is the primary mechanism for ideological and theoretical unification in modern mathematics, and its technically informed discussion covers a variety of philosophical issues. 1990 edition.

Classical Philosophy

By Peter Adamson
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  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Book Code : 0191662046
  • Total of Pages : 400
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 108
  • Pdf File: classical-philosophy.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Classical Philosophy is the first of a series of books in which Peter Adamson aims ultimately to present a complete history of philosophy, more thoroughly but also more enjoyably than ever before. In short, lively chapters, based on the popular History of Philosophy podcast, he offers an accessible, humorous, and detailed look at the emergence of philosophy with the Presocratics, the probing questions of Socrates, and the first full flowering of philosophy with the dialogues of Plato and the treatises of Aristotle. The story is told 'without any gaps', discussing not only such major figures but also less commonly discussed topics like the Hippocratic Corpus, the Platonic Academy, and the role of women in ancient philosophy. Within the thought of Plato and Aristotle, the reader will find in-depth introductions to major works, such as the Republic and the Nicomachean Ethics, which are treated in detail that is unusual in an introduction to ancient philosophy. Adamson looks at fascinating but less frequently read Platonic dialogues like the Charmides and Cratylus, and Aristotle's ideas in zoology and poetics. This full coverage allows him to tackle ancient discussions in all areas of philosophy, including epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of language, philosophy of science, ethics and politics. Attention is also given to the historical and literary context of classical philosophy, with exploration of how early Greek cosmology responded to the poets Homer and Hesiod, how Socrates was presented by the comic playwright Aristophanes and the historian Xenophon, and how events in Greek history may have influenced Plato's thought. This is a new kind of history which will bring philosophy to life for all readers, including those coming to the subject for the first time.

The Methods of Contemporary Thought

By J.M. Bochenski
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  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Book Code : 9401035784
  • Total of Pages : 145
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 748
  • Pdf File: the-methods-of-contemporary-thought.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Professor Bochenski, as he himself points out in the prologue, is a logician; he is best known in England and the United States for his work in the history of logic, and more recently in Soviet and East European philosophy. But he has taught philosophy for many years - in Rome, in Switzerland, and on a number of visits to the United States - and in this book provides an elementary introduction to contemporary work in the field. As a means to this end he has chosen to deal with four alternative methods employed by philosophers in the twentieth century. Philosophical methodology has not attracted much attention, in English speaking circles, as a distinct branch of the discipline of philosophy; the term "methodologist", if used at all, would ordinarily be taken to refer to somebody concerned with scientific rather than philosophical method. When, therefore, Professor Bochenski refers, as he frequently does, to "contemporary methodologists", meaning people who debate the re spective merits of phenomenology and mathematical logic as ways of approaching the world, the phrase has an odd ring. But philosophical methodology really makes a great deal more sense than scientific method ology. In science methodology is almost superfluous; given all the avail able information and a reasonably clear idea of what is wanted, there is usually not much ambiguity as to the means of getting it, or not much that could be resolved by mere argument.

Phenomenology on Kant, German Idealism, Hermeneutics and Logic

By O.K. Wiegand,Robert J. Dostal,Lester Embree,J.J. Kockelmans,J.N. Mohanty
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Book Code : 9401594465
  • Total of Pages : 356
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 621
  • Pdf File: phenomenology-on-kant-german-idealism-hermeneutics-and-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Joseph 1. Kockelmans Pennsylvania State University In July of 1999, Prof. Dr. Thomas M. Seebohm turned 65 years old, and thus en tered mandatory retirement. His friends, colleagues, and former students thought that it would be fitting to celebrate the event of his retirement with a volume of essays in his honor, in order to render homage to a great human being, an outstanding and dedicated teacher, a highly regarded philosopher and scholar, but above all a dear friend and colleague. When the editors thought about a unifying theme for the anthology, they finally settled on the research interests of Professor Seebohm; in their view the vast do main of his competence and interests would leave all participants the freedom to select a topic of their own choice that would nonetheless lie within this large realm as well as within the area of their own research interests. Professor Seebohm's research interests encompass work in Phenomenology, Hermeneutics, German Idealism (Kant in particular), History of Philosophy, Phi losophy of the formal sciences (of Logic in particular), Philosophy of History, Methodology and Philosophy of the Human Sciences, (including Psychology and Sociology), History of 19th Century British Empiricism (Mill), American Pragma tism, Analytic Philosophy, Philosophy of Law and Practical Philosophy, the devel opment of the history of philosophy in Eastern Europe, especially in the Middle Ages, but also in the nineteenth century.