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The Growing Gap Between Emerging Technologies and Legal-Ethical Oversight

By Gary E. Marchant,Braden R. Allenby,Joseph R. Herkert
  • ISBN Code: : 9400713568
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Pages : 212
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 837
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : the-growing-gap-between-emerging-technologies-and-legal-ethical-oversight.pdf

Book Excerpt :

At the same time that the pace of science and technology has greatly accelerated in recent decades, our legal and ethical oversight mechanisms have become bogged down and slower. This book addresses the growing gap between the pace of science and technology and the lagging responsiveness of legal and ethical oversight society relies on to govern emerging technologies. Whether it be biotechnology, genetic testing, nanotechnology, synthetic biology, computer privacy, autonomous robotics, or any of the other many emerging technologies, new approaches are needed to ensure appropriate and timely regulatory responses. This book documents the problem and offers a toolbox of potential regulatory and governance approaches that might be used to ensure more responsive oversight.

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Book Short Summary:

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Book Short Summary:

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Book Short Summary:

AI is poised to disrupt our work and our lives. We can harness these technologies rather than fall captive to them—but only through wise regulation. Too many CEOs tell a simple story about the future of work: if a machine can do what you do, your job will be automated. They envision everyone from doctors to soldiers rendered superfluous by ever-more-powerful AI. They offer stark alternatives: make robots or be replaced by them. Another story is possible. In virtually every walk of life, robotic systems can make labor more valuable, not less. Frank Pasquale tells the story of nurses, teachers, designers, and others who partner with technologists, rather than meekly serving as data sources for their computerized replacements. This cooperation reveals the kind of technological advance that could bring us all better health care, education, and more, while maintaining meaningful work. These partnerships also show how law and regulation can promote prosperity for all, rather than a zero-sum race of humans against machines. How far should AI be entrusted to assume tasks once performed by humans? What is gained and lost when it does? What is the optimal mix of robotic and human interaction? New Laws of Robotics makes the case that policymakers must not allow corporations or engineers to answer these questions alone. The kind of automation we get—and who it benefits—will depend on myriad small decisions about how to develop AI. Pasquale proposes ways to democratize that decision making, rather than centralize it in unaccountable firms. Sober yet optimistic, New Laws of Robotics offers an inspiring vision of technological progress, in which human capacities and expertise are the irreplaceable center of an inclusive economy.

Engineering Identities, Epistemologies and Values

By Steen Hyldgaard Christensen,Christelle Didier,Andrew Jamison,Martin Meganck,Carl Mitcham,Byron Newberry
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 3319161725
  • Total of Pages : 416
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 721
  • Pdf File: engineering-identities-epistemologies-and-values.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This second companion volume on engineering studies considers engineering practice including contextual analyses of engineering identity, epistemologies and values. Key overlapping questions examine such issues as an engineering identity, engineering self-understandings enacted in the professional world, distinctive characters of engineering knowledge and how engineering science and engineering design interact in practice. Authors bring with them perspectives from their institutional homes in Europe, North America, Australia\ and Asia. The volume includes 24 contributions by more than 30 authors from engineering, the social sciences and the humanities. Additional issues the chapters scrutinize include prominent norms of engineering, how they interact with the values of efficiency or environmental sustainability. A concluding set of articles considers the meaning of context more generally by asking if engineers create their own contexts or are they created by contexts. Taken as a whole, this collection of original scholarly work is unique in its broad, multidisciplinary consideration of the changing character of engineering practice.

Immersive Journalism as Storytelling

By Turo Uskali,Astrid Gynnild,Sarah Jones,Esa Sirkkunen
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 0429794967
  • Total of Pages : 202
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 335
  • Pdf File: immersive-journalism-as-storytelling.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book sets out cutting-edge new research and examines future prospects on 360-degree video, virtual reality (VR), and augmented reality (AR) in journalism, analyzing and discussing virtual world experiments from a range of perspectives. Featuring contributions from a diverse range of scholars, Immersive Journalism as Storytelling highlights both the opportunities and the challenges presented by this form of storytelling. The book discusses how immersive journalism has the potential to reach new audiences, change the way stories are told, and provide more interactivity within the news industry. Aside from generating deeper emotional reactions and global perspectives, the book demonstrates how it can also diversify and upskill the news industry. Further contributions address the challenges, examining how immersive storytelling calls for reassessing issues of journalism ethics and truthfulness, transparency, privacy, manipulation, and surveillance, and questioning what it means to cover reality when a story is told in virtual reality. Chapters are grounded in empirical data such as content analyses and expert interviews, alongside insightful case studies that discuss Euronews, Nonny de la Peña’s Project Syria, and The New York Times’ NYTVR application. This book is written for journalism teachers, educators, and students, as well as scholars, politicians, lawmakers, and citizens with an interest in emerging technologies for media practice.

Constitutional Sunsets and Experimental Legislation

By Sofia Ranchordás
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
  • Book Code : 1783478950
  • Total of Pages : 256
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 197
  • Pdf File: constitutional-sunsets-and-experimental-legislation.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This innovative book explores the nature and function of 'sunset clauses' and experimental legislation, or temporary legislation that expires after a determined period of time, allowing legislators to test out new rules and regulations within a set time frame and on a small-scale basis.

The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, fourth edition

By Ulrike Felt,Rayvon Fouche,Clark A. Miller,Laurel Smith-Doerr
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Book Code : 0262338114
  • Total of Pages : 1208
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 870
  • Pdf File: the-handbook-of-science-and-technology-studies-fourth-edition.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The fourth edition of an authoritative overview, with all new chapters that capture the state of the art in a rapidly growing field. Science and Technology Studies (STS) is a flourishing interdisciplinary field that examines the transformative power of science and technology to arrange and rearrange contemporary societies. The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies provides a comprehensive and authoritative overview of the field, reviewing current research and major theoretical and methodological approaches in a way that is accessible to both new and established scholars from a range of disciplines. This new edition, sponsored by the Society for Social Studies of Science, is the fourth in a series of volumes that have defined the field of STS. It features 36 chapters, each written for the fourth edition, that capture the state of the art in a rich and rapidly growing field. One especially notable development is the increasing integration of feminist, gender, and postcolonial studies into the body of STS knowledge. The book covers methods and participatory practices in STS research; mechanisms by which knowledge, people, and societies are coproduced; the design, construction, and use of material devices and infrastructures; the organization and governance of science; and STS and societal challenges including aging, agriculture, security, disasters, environmental justice, and climate change.

Gene Drives on the Horizon

By National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Committee on Gene Drive Research in Non-Human Organisms: Recommendations for Responsible Conduct
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 0309437903
  • Total of Pages : 230
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 789
  • Pdf File: gene-drives-on-the-horizon.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, which disproportionately impact low and middle income countries. However, due to their intrinsic qualities of rapid spread and irreversibility, gene drive systems raise many questions with respect to their safety relative to public and environmental health. Because gene drive systems are designed to alter the environments we share in ways that will be hard to anticipate and impossible to completely roll back, questions about the ethics surrounding use of this research are complex and will require very careful exploration. Gene Drives on the Horizon outlines the state of knowledge relative to the science, ethics, public engagement, and risk assessment as they pertain to research directions of gene drive systems and governance of the research process. This report offers principles for responsible practices of gene drive research and related applications for use by investigators, their institutions, the research funders, and regulators.

Case Studies on the Regulatory Challenges Raised by Innovation and the Regulatory Responses

By OECD,Korea Development Institute
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : OECD Publishing
  • Book Code : 926477050X
  • Total of Pages : 150
  • Category :
  • Members : 212
  • Pdf File: case-studies-on-the-regulatory-challenges-raised.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The pace and scope of innovation are challenging the way governments regulate. Existing regulatory frameworks might not be agile enough to accommodate the fast pace of technological development and, as a consequence, rules might become outdated.

Our Grandchildren Redesigned

By Michael Bess
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Beacon Press
  • Book Code : 0807052183
  • Total of Pages : 320
  • Category : Medical
  • Members : 466
  • Pdf File: our-grandchildren-redesigned.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A panoramic overview of biotechnologies that can endlessly boost human capabilities and the drastic changes these “superhuman” traits could trigger Biotechnology is moving fast. In the coming decades, advanced pharmaceuticals, bioelectronics, and genetic interventions will be used not only to heal the sick but to boost human physical and mental performance to unprecedented levels. People will have access to pills that make them stronger and faster, informatic devices will interface seamlessly with the human brain, and epigenetic modification may allow people to reshape their own physical and mental identities at will. Until recently, such major technological watersheds—like the development of metal tools or the industrialization of manufacturing—came about incrementally over centuries or longer. People and social systems had time to adapt: they gradually developed new values, norms, and habits to accommodate the transformed material conditions. But contemporary society is dangerously unprepared for the dramatic changes it is about to experience down this road on which it is already advancing at an accelerating pace. The results will no doubt be mixed. People will live longer, healthier lives, will fine-tune their own thought processes, and will generate staggeringly complex and subtle forms of knowledge and insight. But these technologies also threaten to widen the rift between rich and poor, to generate new forms of social and economic division, and to force people to engage in constant cycles of upgrades and boosts merely to keep up. Individuals who boost their traits beyond a certain threshold may acquire such extreme capabilities that they will no longer be recognized as unambiguously human. In this important and timely book, prize-winning historian Michael Bess provides a clear, nontechnical overview of cutting-edge biotechnology and paints a vivid portrait of a near-future society in which bioenhancement has become a part of everyday life. He surveys the ethical questions raised by the enhancement enterprise and explores the space for human agency in dealing with the challenges that these technologies will present. Headed your way over the coming decades: new biotechnologies that can powerfully alter your body and mind. The possibilities are tantalizing: • Rejuvenation therapies offering much longer lives (160 and even beyond) in full vigor and mental acuity • Cognitive enhancement through chemical or bioelectronic means (the rough equivalent of doubling or tripling IQ scores) • Epigenetic tools for altering some of your genetically influenced traits at any point in your lifetime (body shape, athletic ability, intelligence, personality) • Bioelectronic devices for modulating your own brain processes, including your “pleasure centers” (a potentially non-stop high) • Direct control of machines by thought, and perhaps direct communication with other people, brain-to-brain (a new dimension of sharing and intimacy) But some of the potential consequences are also alarming: • A growing rift between the biologically enhanced and those who can’t afford such modifications • A constant cycle of upgrades and boosts as the bar of “normal” rises ever higher—“Humans 95, Humans XP, Humans 8” • The fragmentation of humankind into rival “bioenhancement clusters” • A gradually blurring boundary between “person” and “product” • Extreme forms of self-modification, with some individuals no longer recognized as unambiguously human

Behind and Beyond the Chicago Convention

By Pablo Mendes De Leon,Niall Buissing
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Kluwer Law International B.V.
  • Book Code : 9403511052
  • Total of Pages : 504
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 553
  • Pdf File: behind-and-beyond-the-chicago-convention.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Behind and Beyond the Chicago Convention The Evolution of Aerial Sovereignty Edited by Pablo Mendes de Leon & Niall Buissing The Convention on International Civil Aviation which was concluded in Chicago on 7 December 1944, commonly referred to as the Chicago Convention, is one of the most ratified multilateral agreements currently in force, with 193 States parties. In this deeply informative book celebrating its 75th birthday, thirty-three of the most distinguished authors in aviation law offer perspectives on the quality of the Convention’s achievements, which principally address the promotion of safety and security. Emphasising the Convention’s flexibility in the accommodation of social and technological changes, the authors investigate such topics and issues as the following: environmental protection measures such as abatement of noise and reduction of the damaging effects of gaseous emissions; effect of new methods of communication such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS); distinction between civil and State aircraft; economic regulation as established under air services agreements between States; cybersecurity measures; compensation for damages; liberalisation of air services; role of regional aviation organisations, in particular, that of the European Union; position of airlines, airports, and providers of air navigation services; and territorial jurisdiction with respect to areas lacking a universally accepted sovereign status. Annexes include the original texts of the Paris Convention 1919 and the Chicago Convention 1944. With its incisive perceptions put forward by distinguished aviation lawyers – including an exploration of the absolute character of sovereignty – this book is without peer in its analysis of how the Chicago Convention affects the regulation of international civil aviation and the operation of air services. Its multifaceted approach towards the current state of affairs from a legal and policy perspective will be welcomed by practitioners and law firms in the field and civil aviation authorities, as well as by academics and business persons with a stake in aviation.

Experimental Legislation in China between Efficiency and Legality

By Madeleine Martinek
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 3319776169
  • Total of Pages : 342
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 834
  • Pdf File: experimental-legislation-in-china-between-efficiency-and-legality.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book analyzes the benefits of and legal concerns in connection with the delegated legislation of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone as a prime example of experimental legislation in Chinese law. It offers solutions for improving the legal design of experimental regulations in Special Economic Zones by striking a balance between the pursuit of rapid socio-economic progress on the one hand, and the increasing need and will to govern by the rule of law on the other. The book offers a valuable guide for the academic community and legal practitioners, as well as students eager to gain insights into Chinese constitutional law and the conflict between legality and achieving reforms.

Ecologies for Learning and Practice

By Ronald Barnett,Norman Jackson
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1351020242
  • Total of Pages : 236
  • Category : Education
  • Members : 914
  • Pdf File: ecologies-for-learning-and-practice.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Ecologies for Learning and Practice provides the first systematic account of the ideas of learning ecologies and ecologies of practice and locates the two concepts within the context of our contemporary world. It focuses on how individuals and society are being presented with all manner of learning challenges arising from fluidities and disruptions, which extend across all domains of life. This book examines emerging ways of understanding and living purposively in these new fluidities and provides fresh perspectives on the way we learn and achieve in such dynamic contexts. Providing an insight into the research of a range of internationally renowned contributors, this book explores diverse topics from the higher education and adult learning worlds. These include: The challenges faced by education systems today The concept of ecologies for learning and practice The role and responsibility of higher education institutions in advancing ecological approaches to learning The different eco-social systems of the world—local and global, economic, cultural, practical, technological, and ethical How adult learners might create and manage their own ecologies for learning and practice in order to sustain themselves and flourish With its proposals for individual and institutional learning in the 21st century and concerns for our sustainability in a fragile world, Ecologies for Learning and Practice is an essential guide for all who seek to encourage and facilitate learning in a world that is fundamentally ecological in nature.

Social Epistemology and Technology

By Frank Scalambrino
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield
  • Book Code : 1783485345
  • Total of Pages : 224
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 474
  • Pdf File: social-epistemology-and-technology.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book examines the social epistemological issues relating to technology for the sake of providing insights toward public self-awareness and informing matters of education, policy, and public deliberation.

Steering Human Evolution

By Yehezkel Dror
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Taylor & Francis
  • Book Code : 1000049922
  • Total of Pages : 198
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 505
  • Pdf File: steering-human-evolution.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Humanity must steer its evolution. As human knowledge moves a step ahead of Darwin’s theories, this book presents the emergence of human-made meta-evolution shaping our alternative futures. This novel process poses fateful challenges to humanity, which require regulation of emerging science and technology which may endanger the future of our species. However, to do so successfully, a novel ‘humanity-craft’ has to be developed; main ideologies and institutions need redesign; national sovereignty has to be limited; a decisive global regime becomes essential; some revaluation of widely accepted norms becomes essential; and a novel type of political leader, based on merit in addition to public support, is urgently needed. Taking into account the strength of nationalism and vested interests, it may well be that only catastrophes will teach humanity to metamorphose into a novel epoch without too high transition costs. But initial steps, such as United Nation reforms, are urgent in order to contain calamities and may soon become feasible. Being both interdisciplinary and based on personal experience of the author, this book adds up to a novel paradigm on steering human evolution. It will be of great interest to scholars and researchers of modern history, evolution sciences, future studies, political science, philosophy of action, and science and technology. It will also be of wide appeal to the general reader anxious about the future of life on Earth. Comments on the Corona pandemic add to the book’s concrete significance.