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The End of the Bronze Age

By Robert Drews
  • ISBN Code: : 0691209979
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Pages :
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 492
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : the-end-of-the-bronze-age.pdf

Book Excerpt :

The Bronze Age came to a close early in the twelfth century b.c. with one of the worst calamities in history: over a period of several decades, destruction descended upon key cities throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, bringing to an end the Levantine, Hittite, Trojan, and Mycenaean kingdoms and plunging some lands into a dark age that would last more than four hundred years. In his attempt to account for this destruction, Robert Drews rejects the traditional explanations and proposes a military one instead.

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Read Also This Books

The Coming of the Greeks

By Robert Drews
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Book Code : 0691186588
  • Total of Pages : 257
  • Category : History
  • Members : 552
  • Pdf File: the-coming-of-the-greeks.pdf

Book Short Summary:

When did the Indo-Europeans enter the lands that they occupied during historical times? And, more specifically, when did the Greeks come to Greece? Robert Drews brings together the evidence--historical, linguistic, and archaeological--to tackle these important questions.

The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean

By Eric H. Cline
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 019024075X
  • Total of Pages : 976
  • Category : History
  • Members : 178
  • Pdf File: the-oxford-handbook-of-the-bronze-age-aegean.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Greek Bronze Age, roughly 3000 to 1000 BCE, witnessed the flourishing of the Minoan and Mycenean civilizations, the earliest expansion of trade in the Aegean and wider Mediterranean Sea, the development of artistic techniques in a variety of media, and the evolution of early Greek religious practices and mythology. The period also witnessed a violent conflict in Asia Minor between warring peoples in the region, a conflict commonly believed to be the historical basis for Homer's Trojan War. The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean provides a detailed survey of these fascinating aspects of the period, and many others, in sixty-six newly commissioned articles. Divided into four sections, the handbook begins with Background and Definitions, which contains articles establishing the discipline in its historical, geographical, and chronological settings and in its relation to other disciplines. The second section, Chronology and Geography, contains articles examining the Bronze Age Aegean by chronological period (Early Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age). Each of the periods are further subdivided geographically, so that individual articles are concerned with Mainland Greece during the Early Bronze Age, Crete during the Early Bronze Age, the Cycladic Islands during the Early Bronze Age, and the same for the Middle Bronze Age, followed by the Late Bronze Age. The third section, Thematic and Specific Topics, includes articles examining thematic topics that cannot be done justice in a strictly chronological/geographical treatment, including religion, state and society, trade, warfare, pottery, writing, and burial customs, as well as specific events, such as the eruption of Santorini and the Trojan War. The fourth section, Specific Sites and Areas, contains articles examining the most important regions and sites in the Bronze Age Aegean, including Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, Knossos, Kommos, Rhodes, the northern Aegean, and the Uluburun shipwreck, as well as adjacent areas such as the Levant, Egypt, and the western Mediterranean. Containing new work by an international team of experts, The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean represents the most comprehensive, authoritative, and up-to-date single-volume survey of the field. It will be indispensable for scholars and advanced students alike.

The Archaeology of the Bronze Age Levant

By Raphael Greenberg
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Book Code : 1108764185
  • Total of Pages :
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 404
  • Pdf File: the-archaeology-of-the-bronze-age-levant.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Levant - modern Lebanon, southern Syria, Jordan, Israel and Palestine - is one of the most intensively excavated regions of the world. This richly documented and illustrated survey offers a state-of-the-art description of the formative phase of Levantine societies, as they perfected the Mediterranean village economy and began to interact with neighboring civilizations in Egypt and Syria, on the way to establishing their first towns and city-state polities. Citing numerous finds and interpretive approaches, Greenberg offers a new narrative of social and cultural development, emulation, resistance and change, illustrating how Levantine communities translated broader movements of the Near Eastern and Mediterranean Bronze Age - the emergence of states, international trade, elite networks and imperial ambitions - into a uniquely Levantine idiom.

The Philistines and Aegean Migration at the End of the Late Bronze Age

By Assaf Yasur-Landau
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Book Code : 1139485873
  • Total of Pages :
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 778
  • Pdf File: the-philistines-and-aegean-migration-at-the-end-of-the-late-bronze-age.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In this study, Assaf Yasur-Landau examines the early history of the biblical Philistines who were among the 'Sea Peoples' who migrated from the Aegean area to the Levant during the early twelfth century BC. Creating an archaeological narrative of the migration of the Philistines, he combines an innovative theoretical framework on the archaeology of migration with new data from excavations in Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel and thereby reconstructs the social history of the Aegean migration to the southern Levant. The author follows the story of the migrants from the conditions that caused the Philistines to leave their Aegean homes, to their movement eastward along the sea and land routes, to their formation of a migrant society in Philistia and their interaction with local populations in the Levant. Based on the most up-to-date evidence, this book offers a new and fresh understanding of the arrival of the Philistines in the Levant.

A History of Disease in Ancient Times

By Philip Norrie
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 3319289373
  • Total of Pages : 155
  • Category : History
  • Members : 619
  • Pdf File: a-history-of-disease-in-ancient-times.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book shows how bubonic plague and smallpox helped end the Hittite Empire, the Bronze Age in the Near East and later the Carthaginian Empire. The book will examine all the possible infectious diseases present in ancient times and show that life was a daily struggle for survival either avoiding or fighting against these infectious disease epidemics. The book will argue that infectious disease epidemics are a critical link in the chain of causation for the demise of most civilizations in the ancient world and that ancient historians should no longer ignore them, as is currently the case.

The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age

By Anthony Harding,Harry Fokkens
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Book Code : 0191007331
  • Total of Pages : 750
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 436
  • Pdf File: the-oxford-handbook-of-the-european-bronze-age.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age is a wide-ranging survey of a crucial period in prehistory during which many social, economic, and technological changes took place. Written by expert specialists in the field, the book provides coverage both of the themes that characterize the period, and of the specific developments that took place in the various countries of Europe. After an introduction and a discussion of chronology, successive chapters deal with settlement studies, burial analysis, hoards and hoarding, monumentality, rock art, cosmology, gender, and trade, as well as a series of articles on specific technologies and crafts (such as transport, metals, glass, salt, textiles, and weighing). The second half of the book covers each country in turn. From Ireland to Russia, Scandinavia to Sicily, every area is considered, and up to date information on important recent finds is discussed in detail. The book is the first to consider the whole of the European Bronze Age in both geographical and thematic terms, and will be the standard book on the subject for the foreseeable future.

The Ancient Near East: A Very Short Introduction

By Amanda H. Podany
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 019970323X
  • Total of Pages : 168
  • Category : History
  • Members : 442
  • Pdf File: the-ancient-near-east.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The ancient Near East is known as the "cradle of civilization"--and for good reason. Mesopotamia, Syria, and Anatolia were home to an extraordinarily rich and successful culture. Indeed, it was a time and place of earth-shaking changes for humankind: the beginnings of writing and law, kingship and bureaucracy, diplomacy and state-sponsored warfare, mathematics and literature. This Very Short Introduction offers a fascinating account of this momentous time in human history. The three thousand years covered here--from around 3500 BCE, with the founding of the first Mesopotamian cities, to the conquest of the Near East by the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE-represent a period of incredible innovation, from the invention of the wheel and the plow, to early achievements in astronomy, law, and diplomacy. As historian Amanda Podany explores this era, she overturns the popular image of the ancient world as a primitive, violent place. We discover that women had many rights and freedoms: they could own property, run businesses, and represent themselves in court. Diplomats traveled between the capital cities of major powers ensuring peace and friendship between the kings. Scribes and scholars studied the stars and could predict eclipses and the movements of the planets. Every chapter introduces the reader to a particular moment in ancient Near Eastern history, illuminating such aspects as trade, religion, diplomacy, law, warfare, kingship, and agriculture. Each discussion focuses on evidence provided in two or three cuneiform texts from that time. These documents, the cities in which they were found, the people and gods named in them, the events they recount or reflect, all provide vivid testimony of the era in which they were written. About the Series: Oxford's Very Short Introductions series offers concise and original introductions to a wide range of subjects--from Islam to Sociology, Politics to Classics, Literary Theory to History, and Archaeology to the Bible. Not simply a textbook of definitions, each volume in this series provides trenchant and provocative--yet always balanced and complete--discussions of the central issues in a given discipline or field. Every Very Short Introduction gives a readable evolution of the subject in question, demonstrating how the subject has developed and how it has influenced society. Eventually, the series will encompass every major academic discipline, offering all students an accessible and abundant reference library. Whatever the area of study that one deems important or appealing, whatever the topic that fascinates the general reader, the Very Short Introductions series has a handy and affordable guide that will likely prove indispensable.

Personifying Prehistory

By Joanna Brück
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 0191080926
  • Total of Pages : 328
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 993
  • Pdf File: personifying-prehistory.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Bronze Age is frequently framed in social evolutionary terms. Viewed as the period which saw the emergence of social differentiation, the development of long-distance trade, and the intensification of agricultural production, it is seen as the precursor and origin-point for significant aspects of the modern world. This book presents a very different image of Bronze Age Britain and Ireland. Drawing on the wealth of material from recent excavations, as well as a long history of research, it explores the impact of the post-Enlightenment 'othering' of the non-human on our understanding of Bronze Age society. There is much to suggest that the conceptual boundary between the active human subject and the passive world of objects, so familiar from our own cultural context, was not drawn in this categorical way in the Bronze Age; the self was constructed in relational rather than individualistic terms, and aspects of the non-human world such as pots, houses, and mountains were considered animate entities with their own spirit or soul. In a series of thematic chapters on the human body, artefacts, settlements, and landscapes, this book considers the character of Bronze Age personhood, the relationship between individual and society, and ideas around agency and social power. The treatment and deposition of things such as querns, axes, and human remains provides insights into the meanings and values ascribed to objects and places, and the ways in which such items acted as social agents in the Bronze Age world.

Argos and the Argolid (Routledge Revivals)

By Richard A Tomlinson
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1317696964
  • Total of Pages : 298
  • Category : History
  • Members : 151
  • Pdf File: argos-and-the-argolid.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Argos and the Argolid, first published in 1972, presents a study of the history and achievements of the Argives, who have hitherto been largely neglected: partly because Classical Argos is overshadowed by the legends of an earlier millennium, and partly because many of her monuments and records have been lost. Richard Tomlinson describes the region, and considers the relationship between the Argives who claimed Dorian descent and those whose ancestors were in all probability the inhabitants of the region during the Bronze Age. In particular, he emphasises the Argives’ role as a ‘third force’ in mainland Greek history, where they challenged the supremacy of the Spartans in Peloponnesian affairs. This thorough treatment is intended to correct the usual bias in favour of the better documented affairs of Athens and Sparta. It includes an assessment of Argive military and political organisation, and of their contribution to the arts of Ancient Greece.

Argos and the Argolid (Routledge Revivals)

By Richard A Tomlinson
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1317696972
  • Total of Pages : 298
  • Category : History
  • Members : 121
  • Pdf File: argos-and-the-argolid.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Argos and the Argolid, first published in 1972, presents a study of the history and achievements of the Argives, who have hitherto been largely neglected: partly because Classical Argos is overshadowed by the legends of an earlier millennium, and partly because many of her monuments and records have been lost. Richard Tomlinson describes the region, and considers the relationship between the Argives who claimed Dorian descent and those whose ancestors were in all probability the inhabitants of the region during the Bronze Age. In particular, he emphasises the Argives’ role as a ‘third force’ in mainland Greek history, where they challenged the supremacy of the Spartans in Peloponnesian affairs. This thorough treatment is intended to correct the usual bias in favour of the better documented affairs of Athens and Sparta. It includes an assessment of Argive military and political organisation, and of their contribution to the arts of Ancient Greece.

Sea Peoples of the Bronze Age Mediterranean c.1400 BC–1000 BC

By Raffaele D’Amato,Andrea Salimbeti
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Book Code : 1472806832
  • Total of Pages : 148
  • Category : History
  • Members : 834
  • Pdf File: sea-peoples-of-the-bronze-age-mediterranean-c-1400-bc-1000-bc.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This title features the latest historical and archaeological research into the mysterious and powerful confederations of raiders who troubled the Eastern Mediterranean in the last half of the Bronze Age. Research into the origins of the so-called Shardana, Shekelesh, Danuna, Lukka, Peleset and other peoples is a detective 'work in progress'. However, it is known that they both provided the Egyptian pharaohs with mercenaries, and were listed among Egypt's enemies and invaders. They contributed to the collapse of several civilizations through their dreaded piracy and raids, and their waves of attacks were followed by major migrations that changed the face of this region, from modern Libya and Cyprus to the Aegean, mainland Greece, Lebanon and Anatolian Turkey. Drawing on carved inscriptions and papyrus documents – mainly from Egypt – dating from the 15th–11th centuries BC, as well as carved reliefs of the Medinet Habu, this title reconstructs the formidable appearance and even the tactics of the famous 'Sea Peoples'.

Questioning Collapse

By Patricia A. McAnany,Norman Yoffee
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Book Code : 1107717329
  • Total of Pages : 390
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 218
  • Pdf File: questioning-collapse.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Questioning Collapse challenges those scholars and popular writers who advance the thesis that societies - past and present - collapse because of behavior that destroyed their environments or because of overpopulation. In a series of highly accessible and closely argued essays, a team of internationally recognized scholars bring history and context to bear in their radically different analyses of iconic events, such as the deforestation of Easter Island, the cessation of the Norse colony in Greenland, the faltering of nineteenth-century China, the migration of ancestral peoples away from Chaco Canyon in the American southwest, the crisis and resilience of Lowland Maya kingship, and other societies that purportedly 'collapsed'. Collectively, these essays demonstrate that resilience in the face of societal crises, rather than collapse, is the leitmotif of the human story from the earliest civilizations to the present. Scrutinizing the notion that Euro-American colonial triumphs were an accident of geography, Questioning Collapse also critically examines the complex historical relationship between race and political labels of societal 'success' and 'failure'.

The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant

By Margreet L. Steiner,Ann E. Killebrew
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Book Code : 0191662550
  • Total of Pages : 912
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 578
  • Pdf File: the-oxford-handbook-of-the-archaeology-of-the-levant.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This Handbook aims to serve as a research guide to the archaeology of the Levant, an area situated at the crossroads of the ancient world that linked the eastern Mediterranean, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. The Levant as used here is a historical geographical term referring to a large area which today comprises the modern states of Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, western Syria, and Cyprus, as well as the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and the Sinai Peninsula. Unique in its treatment of the entire region, it offers a comprehensive overview and analysis of the current state of the archaeology of the Levant within its larger cultural, historical, and socio-economic contexts. The Handbook also attempts to bridge the modern scholarly and political divide between archaeologists working in this highly contested region. Written by leading international scholars in the field, it focuses chronologically on the Neolithic through Persian periods - a time span during which the Levant was often in close contact with the imperial powers of Egypt, Anatolia, Assyria, Babylon, and Persia. This volume will serve as an invaluable reference work for those interested in a contextualised archaeological account of this region, beginning with the 'agricultural revolution' until the conquest of Alexander the Great that marked the end of the Persian period.

Bronze Age Connections

By Peter Clark
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxbow Books
  • Book Code : 1782973168
  • Total of Pages : 224
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 527
  • Pdf File: bronze-age-connections.pdf

Book Short Summary:

New and exciting discoveries on either side of the English Channel in recent years have begun to show that people living in the coastal zones of Belgium, southern Britain, northern France and the Netherlands shared a common material culture during the Bronze Age, between three and four thousand years ago. They used similar styles of pottery and metalwork, lived in the same kind of houses and buried their dead in the same kind of tombs, often quite different to those used by their neighbours further inland. The sea did not appear to be a barrier to these people but rather a highway, connecting communities in a unique cultural identity; the 'People of La Manche'. Symbolic of these maritime Bronze Age Connections is the iconic Dover Bronze Age boat, one of Europe's greatest prehistoric discoveries and testament to the skill and technical sophistication of our Bronze Age ancestors. This monograph presents papers from a conference held in Dover in 2006 organised by the Dover Bronze Age Boat Trust, which brought together scholars from many different countries to explore and celebrate these ancient seaborne contacts. Twelve wide-ranging chapters explore themes of travel, exchange, production, magic and ritual that throw new light on our understanding of the seafaring peoples of the second millennium BC.

The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean

By A. Bernard Knapp,Peter van Dommelen
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Book Code : 131619406X
  • Total of Pages :
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 118
  • Pdf File: the-cambridge-prehistory-of-the-bronze-and-iron-age-mediterranean.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean offers new insights into the material and social practices of many different Mediterranean peoples during the Bronze and Iron Ages, presenting in particular those features that both connect and distinguish them. Contributors discuss in depth a range of topics that motivate and structure Mediterranean archaeology today, including insularity and connectivity; mobility, migration, and colonization; hybridization and cultural encounters; materiality, memory, and identity; community and household; life and death; and ritual and ideology. The volume's broad coverage of different approaches and contemporary archaeological practices will help practitioners of Mediterranean archaeology to move the subject forward in new and dynamic ways. Together, the essays in this volume shed new light on the people, ideas, and materials that make up the world of Mediterranean archaeology today, beyond the borders that separate Europe, Africa, and the Middle East.

The Classification of Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Copper and Bronze Axe-heads from Southern Britain

By Stuart Needham
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
  • Book Code : 1784917419
  • Total of Pages : 74
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 772
  • Pdf File: the-classification-of-chalcolithic-and-early-bronze-age-copper-and-bronze-axe-heads-from-southern-britain.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This work presents a comprehensive classification of the morphology of early metal age axe-heads, chisels and stakes from southern Britain. It is illustrated by a type series of 120 representative examples.

The Trojan War: A Very Short Introduction

By Eric H. Cline
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 0199333653
  • Total of Pages : 152
  • Category : History
  • Members : 124
  • Pdf File: the-trojan-war.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Iliad, Homer's epic tale of the abduction of Helen and the decade-long Trojan War, has fascinated mankind for millennia. Even today, the war inspires countless articles and books, extensive archaeological excavations, movies, television documentaries, even souvenirs and collectibles. But while the ancients themselves believed that the Trojan War took place, scholars of the modern era have sometimes derided it as a piece of fiction. Combining archaeological data and textual analysis of ancient documents, this Very Short Introduction considers whether or not the war actually took place and whether archaeologists have really discovered the site of ancient Troy. To answer these questions, archaeologist and ancient historian Eric H. Cline examines various written sources, including the works of Homer, the Epic Cycle (fragments from other, now-lost Greek epics), classical plays, and Virgil's Aeneid. Throughout, the author tests the literary claims against the best modern archaeological evidence, showing for instance that Homer, who lived in the Iron Age, for the most part depicted Bronze Age warfare with accuracy. Cline also tells the engaging story of the archaeologists--Heinrich Schliemann and his successors Wilhelm Dörpfeld, Carl Blegen, and Manfred Korfmann--who found the long-vanished site of Troy through excavations at Hisarlik, Turkey. Drawing on evidence found at Hisarlik and elsewhere, Cline concludes that a war or wars in the vicinity of Troy probably did take place during the Late Bronze Age, forming the nucleus of a story that was handed down orally for centuries until put into final form by Homer. But Cline suggests that, even allowing that a Trojan War took place, it probably was not fought because of Helen's abduction, though such an incident may have provided the justification for a war actually fought for more compelling economic and political motives. About the Series: Oxford's Very Short Introductions series offers concise and original introductions to a wide range of subjects--from Islam to Sociology, Politics to Classics, Literary Theory to History, and Archaeology to the Bible. Not simply a textbook of definitions, each volume in this series provides trenchant and provocative--yet always balanced and complete--discussions of the central issues in a given discipline or field. Every Very Short Introduction gives a readable evolution of the subject in question, demonstrating how the subject has developed and how it has influenced society. Eventually, the series will encompass every major academic discipline, offering all students an accessible and abundant reference library. Whatever the area of study that one deems important or appealing, whatever the topic that fascinates the general reader, the Very Short Introductions series has a handy and affordable guide that will likely prove indispensable.

Black Ships and Sea Raiders

By Jeffrey P. Emanuel
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Lexington Books
  • Book Code : 1498572227
  • Total of Pages : 228
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 188
  • Pdf File: black-ships-and-sea-raiders.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The end of the Bronze Age in the Eastern Mediterranean was a time of social, political, and economic upheaval – conditions reflected, in many ways, in the world of Homer’s Odyssey. Jeffrey P. Emanuel examines the Odyssey’s Second Cretan Lie (xiv 191 – 359) in the context of this watershed transition, with particular emphasis on raiding, warfare, maritime technology and tactics, and the evidence for the so-called ‘Sea Peoples’ who have been connected to the events of this period. He focuses in particular on the hero’s description of his frequent raiding activities and on his subsequent sojourn in the land of the pharaohs, and connections between Odysseus’ false narrative and the historical experiences of one particular Sea Peoples group: the ‘Sherden of the Sea.’

The Beginnings of Rome

By Tim Cornell
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1136754954
  • Total of Pages : 528
  • Category : History
  • Members : 415
  • Pdf File: the-beginnings-of-rome.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Using the results of archaeological techniques, and examining methodological debates, Tim Cornell provides a lucid and authoritative account of the rise of Rome. The Beginnings of Rome offers insight on major issues such as: Rome’s relations with the Etruscans the conflict between patricians and plebeians the causes of Roman imperialism the growth of slave-based economy. Answering the need for raising acute questions and providing an analysis of the many different kinds of archaeological evidence with literary sources, this is the most comprehensive study of the subject available, and is essential reading for students of Roman history.

Near Eastern Archaeology

By Suzanne Richard
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Eisenbrauns
  • Book Code : 1575060833
  • Total of Pages : 486
  • Category : History
  • Members : 395
  • Pdf File: near-eastern-archaeology.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Annotation Filling a gap in classroom texts, more than 60 essays by major scholars in the field have been gathered to create the most up-to-date and complete book available on Levantine and Near Eastern archaeology. The book is divided into two sections: "Theory, Method, and Context," and "Cultural Phases and Topics," which together provide both methodological and areal coverage of the subject. The text is complemented by many line drawings and photographs. Includes a foreword by W.G. Dever.

The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age

By Cynthia W. Shelmerdine
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Book Code : 1107494621
  • Total of Pages : 524
  • Category : Art
  • Members : 799
  • Pdf File: the-cambridge-companion-to-the-aegean-bronze-age.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book is a comprehensive up-to-date survey of the Aegean Bronze Age, from its beginnings to the period following the collapse of the Mycenaean palace system. In essays by leading authorities commissioned especially for this volume, it covers the history and the material culture of Crete, Greece, and the Aegean Islands from c.3000–1100 BCE, as well as topics such as trade, religions, and economic administration. Intended as a reliable, readable introduction for university students, it will also be useful to scholars in related fields within and outside classics. The contents of this book are arranged chronologically and geographically, facilitating comparison between the different cultures. Within this framework, the cultures of the Aegean Bronze Age are assessed thematically and combine both material culture and social history.

The Bronze Age Begins

By Philip P. Betancourt
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : INSTAP Academic Press (Institute for Aegean Prehistory)
  • Book Code : 1623030110
  • Total of Pages : 202
  • Category : Art
  • Members : 774
  • Pdf File: the-bronze-age-begins.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book focuses on economic and social changes, particularly during the opening phase of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. New developments in ceramics that reached Crete at the end of the Neolithic period greatly contributed to the creation of economic, technological, social, and religious advancements we call the Early Bronze Age. The arguments are two-fold: a detailed explanation of the ceramics we call Early Minoan I and the differences that set it apart from its predecessors, and an explanation of how these new and highly superior containers changed the storage, transport, and accumulation of a new form of wealth consisting primarily of processed agricultural and animal products like wine, olive oil, and various foods preserved in wine, vinegar, honey, and other liquids. The increased stability and security provided by an improved ability to store food from one year to the next would have a profound effect on the society. Contents: Part I: 1. Introduction, 2. The Change in Ceramic Technology in EM I, 3. The Clays and the Fired Fabrics, 4. The Pottery Shapes, 5. EM I Surface Treatments and Decoration and their Relation to Fabrics, Shapes, and Methods of Manufacture, 6. Comments and Conclusions on the Pottery; Part II: 7. The Transformation of Cretan Society; References; Index.

Archaeology of the Ionian Sea

By Christina Souyoudzoglou-Haywood,Christina Papoulia
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxbow Books
  • Book Code : 1789256747
  • Total of Pages : 224
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 496
  • Pdf File: archaeology-of-the-ionian-sea.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Presents a thematic collection of papers dealing with the Stone Age and Bronze Age archaeology of the Ionian Sea, situated off the south western Balkan peninsula. It is based on an international conference held in Athens, Greece in January 2020. The eastern Ionian occupies a geographically complex area, which since the Pleistocene has undergone significant alterations due to tectonic activity and sea-level fluctuations. This dynamic environment, where islands, mainland, and sea intertwined to present different landscapes and seascapes to the human communities exploring the region at different times in the past, provides an ideal setting for their study from a diachronic perspective. This book deals thematically with the processes of circulation of people, materials, artefacts and ideas by examining patterns of settlement, burial and multi-layered interconnections between the different communities via land and sea. It investigates aspects of regional and interregional communication, isolation, collective memory and the creation of distinct identities within and between different cultural and social groups. It focuses on the islands of the Central Ionian Sea, offering new data from excavations and surveys on Zakynthos, Kefalonia, Ithaki and the smaller islands of the Inner Ionian Archipelago between Lefkada and Akarnania. The cultural interchange between the islands and the continental coasts is reflected in the volume with the addition of chapters dealing with contemporary sites in west Greece and southeast Italy. The Ionian, often regarded as 'at the fringes' of the Aegean, the Balkan and the central Mediterranean archaeological discourse, has lately offered new and exciting data that not only enrich but also alter our perceptions of mobility, settlement and interaction. The collection of papers in this book enhances theoretical discussions by offering a geographically and culturally comparative approach, ranging from the earliest Palaeolithic evidence of human presence in the region to the end of the Bronze Age.

Archaeology of the Ionian Sea

By Christina Souyoudzoglou-Haywood,Christina Papoulia
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxbow Books
  • Book Code : 1789256763
  • Total of Pages : 224
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 708
  • Pdf File: archaeology-of-the-ionian-sea.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Presents a thematic collection of papers dealing with the Stone Age and Bronze Age archaeology of the Ionian Sea, situated off the south western Balkan peninsula. It is based on an international conference held in Athens, Greece in January 2020. The eastern Ionian occupies a geographically complex area, which since the Pleistocene has undergone significant alterations due to tectonic activity and sea-level fluctuations. This dynamic environment, where islands, mainland, and sea intertwined to present different landscapes and seascapes to the human communities exploring the region at different times in the past, provides an ideal setting for their study from a diachronic perspective. This book deals thematically with the processes of circulation of people, materials, artefacts and ideas by examining patterns of settlement, burial and multi-layered interconnections between the different communities via land and sea. It investigates aspects of regional and interregional communication, isolation, collective memory and the creation of distinct identities within and between different cultural and social groups. It focuses on the islands of the Central Ionian Sea, offering new data from excavations and surveys on Zakynthos, Kefalonia, Ithaki and the smaller islands of the Inner Ionian Archipelago between Lefkada and Akarnania. The cultural interchange between the islands and the continental coasts is reflected in the volume with the addition of chapters dealing with contemporary sites in west Greece and southeast Italy. The Ionian, often regarded as 'at the fringes' of the Aegean, the Balkan and the central Mediterranean archaeological discourse, has lately offered new and exciting data that not only enrich but also alter our perceptions of mobility, settlement and interaction. The collection of papers in this book enhances theoretical discussions by offering a geographically and culturally comparative approach, ranging from the earliest Palaeolithic evidence of human presence in the region to the end of the Bronze Age.

1177 B.C.

By Eric H. Cline
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Book Code : 0691208026
  • Total of Pages : 300
  • Category : History
  • Members : 152
  • Pdf File: 1177-b-c.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A bold reassessment of what caused the Late Bronze Age collapse In 1177 B.C., marauding groups known only as the "Sea Peoples" invaded Egypt. The pharaoh's army and navy managed to defeat them, but the victory so weakened Egypt that it soon slid into decline, as did most of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized world of the Bronze Age came to an abrupt and cataclysmic end. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the course of just a few decades. No more Minoans or Mycenaeans. No more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving economy and cultures of the late second millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, suddenly ceased to exist, along with writing systems, technology, and monumental architecture. But the Sea Peoples alone could not have caused such widespread breakdown. How did it happen? In this major new account of the causes of this "First Dark Ages," Eric Cline tells the gripping story of how the end was brought about by multiple interconnected failures, ranging from invasion and revolt to earthquakes, drought, and the cutting of international trade routes. Bringing to life the vibrant multicultural world of these great civilizations, he draws a sweeping panorama of the empires and globalized peoples of the Late Bronze Age and shows that it was their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic collapse and ushered in a dark age that lasted centuries. A compelling combination of narrative and the latest scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new light on the complex ties that gave rise to, and ultimately destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the Late Bronze Age—and that set the stage for the emergence of classical Greece.

Late Bronze Age Flintworking from Ritual Zones in Southern Scandinavia

By Mirosław Masojć
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
  • Book Code : 1784913804
  • Total of Pages : 276
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 947
  • Pdf File: late-bronze-age-flintworking-from-ritual-zones-in-southern-scandinavia.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book is devoted to flintworking encountered in the so-called cult houses and ritual zones from the Late Bronze Age in southern Scandinavia, where thousands of barrows were built in the period from the Neolithic to the end of the Early Bronze Age

Villagers of the Maros

By John M. O'Shea
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Book Code : 1489903046
  • Total of Pages : 400
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 284
  • Pdf File: villagers-of-the-maros.pdf

Book Short Summary:

John M. O'Shea explores this question by employing modern archaeological theory and analysis as well as mortuary theory to build a model of an Early Bronze Age society in the eastern Carpathian Basin. He focuses on the Maros communities and utilizes the densely encoded social information from their cemeteries to draw a picture of the Maros' social systems.

Building the Bronze Age

By Corien Wiersma
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
  • Book Code : 1905739893
  • Total of Pages : 583
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 421
  • Pdf File: building-the-bronze-age.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Wiersma analyses Early Helladic III, Middle Helladic and Late Helladic I domestic architecture with reference to social organization and social change. This book covers domestic architecture from the southern and central Greek mainland up to southern Thessaly.

Metallurgical Production in Northern Eurasia in the Bronze Age

By Stanislav Grigoriev
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
  • Book Code : 1784912360
  • Total of Pages : 832
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 729
  • Pdf File: metallurgical-production-in-northern-eurasia-in-the-bronze-age.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Copper is the first metal to play a large part in human history. This work is devoted to the history of metallurgical production in Northern Eurasia during the Bronze Age, based on experiments carried out by the author and analyses of ancient slag, ore and metal.

Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant

By Shelley Wachsmann
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Texas A&M University Press
  • Book Code : 1623497000
  • Total of Pages : 448
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 983
  • Pdf File: seagoing-ships-and-seamanship-in-the-bronze-age-levant.pdf

Book Short Summary:

During the Bronze Age, the ancient societies that ringed the Mediterranean, once mostly separate and isolate, began to reach across the great expanse of sea to conduct trade, marking an age of immense cultural growth and technological development. These intersocietal lines of communication and paths for commerce relied on rigorous open-water travel. And, as a potential superhighway, the Mediterranean demanded much in the way of seafaring knowledge and innovative ship design if it were to be successfully navigated. In Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant Shelley Wachsmann presents a one-of-a-kind comprehensive examination of how the early eastern Mediterranean cultures took to the sea--and how they evolved as a result. The author surveys the blue-water ships of the Egyptians, Syro-Canaanites, Cypriots, Early Bronze Age Aegeans, Minoans, Mycenaeans, and Sea Peoples, and discusses known Bronze Age shipwrecks. Relying on archaeological, ethnological, iconographic, and textual evidence, Wachsmann delivers a fascinating and intricate rendering of virtually every aspect of early sea travel--from ship construction and propulsion to war on the open water, piracy, and laws pertaining to conduct at sea. This broad study is further enhanced by contributions from other renowned scholars. J. Hoftijzer and W. H. van Soldt offer new and illuminating translations of Ugaritic and Akkadian documents that refer to seafaring. J. R. Lenz delves into the Homeric Greek lexicon to search out possible references to the birdlike shapes that adorned early ships' stem and stern. F. Hocker provides a useful appendix and glossary of nautical terms, and George F. Bass's foreword frames the study's scholarly significance and discusses its place in the nautical archaeological canon. This book brings together for the first time the entire corpus of evidence pertaining to Bronze Age seafaring and will be of special value to archaeologists, maritime historians, philologists, and Bronze Age textual scholars. Offering an abundance of line drawings and photographs and written in a style that makes the material easily accessible to the layperson, Wachsmann's study is certain to become a standard reference for anyone interested in the dawn of sea travel.

Creativity in the Bronze Age

By Lise Bender Jørgensen,Joanna Sofaer,Marie Louise Stig Sørensen
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Book Code : 1108381758
  • Total of Pages :
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 992
  • Pdf File: creativity-in-the-bronze-age.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Creativity is an integral part of human history, yet most studies focus on the modern era, leaving unresolved questions about the formative role that creativity has played in the past. This book explores the fundamental nature of creativity in the European Bronze Age. Considering developments in crafts that we take for granted today, such as pottery, textiles, and metalwork, the volume compares and contrasts various aspects of their development, from the construction of the materials themselves, through the production processes, to the design and effects deployed in finished objects. It explores how creativity is closely related to changes in material culture, how it directs responses to the new and unfamiliar, and how it has resulted in changes to familiar things and practices. Written by an international team of scholars, the case studies in this volume consider wider issues and provide detailed insights into creative solutions found in specific objects.