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Social Stratification In Japan

By Kosaka
  • ISBN Code: : 1136159223
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 236
  • Category : Social Science
  • Reads : 508
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : social-stratification-in-japan.pdf

Book Excerpt :

First Published in 1994. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

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Book Short Summary:

The popular image of Japanese society is a steroetypical one - that of a people characterised by a coherent set of thought and behaviour patterns, applying to all Japanese and transcending time. Ross Mouer and Yoshio Sugimoto found this image quite incongruous during their research for this book in Japan. They ask whether this steroetype of the Japanese is not only generated by foreigners but by the Japanese themselves. This is likely to be a controversial book as it does not contribute to the continuing mythologising of Japan and the Japanese. The book examines contemporary images of Japanese society by surveying an extensive sample of popular and academic literature on Japan. After tracing the development of "holistic" theories about the Japanese, commonly referred to as the "group model", attention is focused on the evaluation of that image. Empirical evidence contrary to this model is discussed and methodological lacunae are cited. A "sociology of Japanology" is also presented. In pursuit of other visions of Japanese society, the authors argue that certain aspects of Japanese behaviour can be explained by considering Japanese society as the exact inverse of the portayal provided by the group model. The authors also present a multi-dimensional model of social stratification, arguing that much of the variation in Japanese behaviour can be understood within the framework as having universal equivalence.

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Book Short Summary:

The popular image of Japanese society is a steroetypical one - that of a people characterised by a coherent set of thought and behaviour patterns, applying to all Japanese and transcending time. Ross Mouer and Yoshio Sugimoto found this image quite incongruous during their research for this book in Japan. They ask whether this steroetype of the Japanese is not only generated by foreigners but by the Japanese themselves. This is likely to be a controversial book as it does not contribute to the continuing mythologising of Japan and the Japanese. The book examines contemporary images of Japanese society by surveying an extensive sample of popular and academic literature on Japan. After tracing the development of "holistic" theories about the Japanese, commonly referred to as the "group model", attention is focused on the evaluation of that image. Empirical evidence contrary to this model is discussed and methodological lacunae are cited. A "sociology of Japanology" is also presented. In pursuit of other visions of Japanese society, the authors argue that certain aspects of Japanese behaviour can be explained by considering Japanese society as the exact inverse of the portayal provided by the group model. The authors also present a multi-dimensional model of social stratification, arguing that much of the variation in Japanese behaviour can be understood within the framework as having universal equivalence.

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Japan is arguably today's most successful industrial economy, combining almost unprecedented affluence with social stability and apparent harmony. Japanese goods and cultural products are consumed all over the world, ranging from animated movies and computer games all the way through to cars, semiconductors, and management techniques. In many ways, Japan is an icon of the modern world, and yet it remains something of an enigma to many, who see it as a confusing montage of the alien and the familiar, the ancient and modern. The aim of this Very Short Introduction is to explode the myths and explore the reality of modern Japan - by taking a concise look at its history, economy, politics, and culture. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

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In the latter half of the 20th century, Japan developed into a thriving economy, and the Japanese remain one of the healthiest populations in the world to this day. However, in the past 25 years, low-growth, mounting debt, and rapid ageing have complicated this image, and global interest in the longevity and social cohesion of the Japanese populace is now greater than ever. Health in Japan brings together the perspectives and research of Japan's leading social epidemiologists in English for the first time, creating an enriching reading experience for both Japanese and international readers. With chapters on key topics such as Chronic Disease, Disasters and Health, and Mental Health and Wellbeing, this textbook offers a comprehensive examination of all major health issues facing the country. Focusing on the primary, upstream causes of health and disease, as well as novel evidence on the wider determinants of well-being and illness, this is a must-read for any public health professional or researcher with an interest in Japanese society, culture, and healthcare.

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Book Short Summary:

Although scholars have emphasized the importance of women’s networks for civil society in twentieth-century Japan, Women and Networks in Nineteenth-Century Japan is the first book to tackle the subject for the contentious and consequential nineteenth century. The essays traverse the divide when Japan started transforming itself from a decentralized to a centralized government, from legally imposed restrictions on movement to the breakdown of travel barriers, and from ad hoc schooling to compulsory elementary school education. As these essays suggest, such changes had a profound impact on women and their roles in networks. Rather than pursue a common methodology, the authors take diverse approaches to this topic that open up fruitful avenues for further exploration. Most of the essays in this volume are by Japanese scholars; their inclusion here provides either an introduction to their work or the opportunity to explore their scholarship further. Because women are often invisible in historical documentation, the authors use a range of sources (such as diaries, letters, and legal documents) to reconstruct the familial, neighborhood, religious, political, work, and travel networks that women maintained, constructed, or found themselves in, sometimes against their will. In so doing, most but not all of the authors try to decenter historical narratives built on men’s activities and men’s occupational and status-based networks, and instead recover women’s activities in more localized groupings and personal associations.

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Book Short Summary:

Until the early 1990s, Japanese education was widely commended for achieving outstanding outcomes in global comparison. At the same time, it was frequently criticized for failing to cultivate 'individuality' and 'creativity' in students. Wide-ranging education reforms were enacted during the 1990s to remedy these perceived failings. However, as this book argues, the reforms produced a different outcome than intended, contributing to growing disparity in learning motivation and educational aspiration of students from different class backgrounds instead. Takehiko Kariya demonstrates by way of empirical sociological analysis that educational inequality in Japan has been expanding, and that a new mechanism of educational selection has begun to operate, which he calls the 'incentive divide'. Casting light on recent changes in Japanese society to critically reassess educational policy choices, this book's quantitative and qualitative analyses of the 'mass education society' in post-war Japan offer important insights also for understanding similar problems faced in other parts of the world at present. Translated into English for the first time, the Japanese language version of Education Reform and Social Class in Japan won the first Osaragi Jirō Prize for Commentary sponsored by the Asahi shinbun. This book will be of interest to students and scholars in the fields of Asian studies, Japanese studies, education, sociology and social policy.

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Japanese Environmental Philosophy is an anthology that responds to the environmental problems of the 21st century by drawing from Japanese philosophical traditions to investigate our relationships with other humans, nonhuman animals, and the environment. It contains chapters from fifteen top scholars from Japan, the United States, and Europe. The essays cover a broad range of Japanese thought, including Zen Buddhism, Shintoism, the Kyoto School, Japanese art and aesthetics, and traditional Japanese culture.

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The in-depth analyses presented in this book have a dual focus: (1) Social mechanisms through which the gender wage gap, gender inequality in the attainment of managerial positions, and gender segregation of occupations are generated in Japan; and (2) Assessments of the effects of firms’ gender-egalitarian personnel policies and work–life balance promotion policies on the gender wage gap and the firms’ productivity. In addition, this work reviews and discusses various economic and sociological theories of gender inequality and gender discrimination and considers their consistencies and inconsistencies with the results of the analysis of Japanese data. Furthermore, the book critically reviews and discusses the historical development of the Japanese employment system by juxtaposing rational and cultural explanations. This book is an English translation by the author of a book he first published in Japanese in 2017. The original Japanese-language edition received two major book awards in Japan. One was The Nikkei Economic Book Culture Award, which is given every year by the Nikkei Newspaper Company and the Japan Economic Research Center to a few best books on economy and society. The other was The Showa University’s Women’s Culture Research Award, which is bestowed annually on a single book of research that promotes gender equality. Kazuo Yamaguchi is the Ralph Lewis Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago.

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Book Short Summary:

The main driver of inequality—returns on capital that exceed the rate of economic growth—is again threatening to generate extreme discontent and undermine democratic values. Thomas Piketty’s findings in this ambitious, original, rigorous work will transform debate and set the agenda for the next generation of thought about wealth and inequality.

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Occupational Prestige in Comparative Perspective provides information pertinent to the study of the nature of inequality in human society. This book discusses that stratification is inevitable in complex societies as they are characterized by a highly developed division of labor into distinct occupational roles. Organized into five parts encompassing 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the nature of occupational prestige systems that is rooted in power relations. This text then examines the extent of intrasocial variation in occupational prestige evaluations. Other chapters consider the contrast between the consensus that characterizes occupational prestige evaluations and the lack of consensus that characterizes the evaluation of other social categories. This book discusses as well the basic pattern of occupational evaluations and the worldwide uniformity in occupational evaluations. The final chapter deals with the development of the occupational scale and discusses it potential uses. This book is a valuable resource for sociologists.

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  • Pdf File: social-status-and-cultural-consumption.pdf

Book Short Summary:

How does cultural hierarchy relate to social hierarchy? Do the more advantaged consume 'high' culture, while the less advantaged consume popular culture? Or has cultural consumption in contemporary societies become individualised to such a degree that there is no longer any social basis for cultural consumption? Leading scholars from the UK, the USA, Chile, France, Hungary and the Netherlands systematically examine the social stratification of arts and culture. They evaluate the 'class-culture homology argument' of Pierre Bourdieu and Herbert Gans; the 'individualisation arguments' of Anthony Giddens, Ulrich Beck and Zygmunt Bauman; and the 'omnivore-univore argument' of Richard Peterson. They also demonstrate that, consistent with Max Weber's class-status distinction, cultural consumption, as a key element of lifestyle, is stratified primarily on the basis of social status rather than by social class.

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Research in Social Stratification and Mobility continues its tradition of publishing the best and most innovative research on the changing landscape of social inequality the world over. This issue focuses on different dimensions of social closure and their relationship to social inequality processes, including the changing role that education plays in sorting people into favorable and unfavorable labor market positions across a global diversity of cultural settings. This issue also examines the fluid boundaries of race and ethnicity in contentious political settings, relationships between attitudes and collective action, and the role that technology and political context plays in promoting economic development and well-being. These topics and the research methodologies they represent display the vitality of social science research dealing with social stratification and the wide array of methods, contexts, and policies that directly affect the life chances of most of the world's peoples. This issue also marks a continuation of the ties developed between RSSM and the Social Stratification and Mobility section of the International Sociological Association (RC-28). This collaboration promises to promote and disseminate social inequality research throughout the world through an established network of distinguished international contributors and commentators.

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Groundbreaking analysis showing that greater economic equality-not greater wealth-is the mark of the most successful societies, and offering new ways to achieve it. "Get your hands on this book."-Bill Moyers This groundbreaking book, based on thirty years' research, demonstrates that more unequal societies are bad for almost everyone within them-the well-off and the poor. The remarkable data the book lays out and the measures it uses are like a spirit level which we can hold up to compare different societies. The differences revealed, even between rich market democracies, are striking. Almost every modern social and environmental problem-ill health, lack of community life, violence, drugs, obesity, mental illness, long working hours, big prison populations-is more likely to occur in a less equal society. The book goes to the heart of the apparent contrast between material success and social failure in many modern national societies. The Spirit Level does not simply provide a diagnosis of our ills, but provides invaluable instruction in shifting the balance from self-interested consumerism to a friendlier, more collaborative society. It shows a way out of the social and environmental problems which beset us, and opens up a major new approach to improving the real quality of life, not just for the poor but for everyone. It is, in its conclusion, an optimistic book, which should revitalize politics and provide a new way of thinking about how we organize human communities.

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  • Pdf File: social-mobility-in-contemporary-japan.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The book is a study of intergenerational class mobility and the process of socioeconomic status attainment in contemporary Japan. The idea of 'Japan as an educational credential society' has been debated for a long time in Japan. The book empirically evaluates this idea within the framework of a cross-national comparison with the United States and Britain. The author also examines the patterns of class mobility in Japan within a cross-national perspective and reports similarities and differences in the mobility patterns among the three societies.

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  • Book Code : 0191634913
  • Total of Pages :
  • Category : Business & Economics
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  • Pdf File: east-asian-capitalism.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The increasing economic and political importance of East Asia in the global political economy requires a deeper analysis of the nature of the capitalist systems in this region than has been provided by the existing literature on comparative capitalisms. This volume brings together conceptual and empirical analyses of the evolving patterns of East Asian capitalism against the backdrop of regional and global market integration and periodic economic crises since the 1980s. Focusing on China, Japan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Thailand, it provides an interdisciplinary account of variations, continuities, and changes in the institutional structures that govern financial systems, industrial relations, and product markets, and that shape the evolution of national political economies. While the volume encompasses a range of different cases, specific issues, and diverse methodologies, all the chapters address two dominant themes - the continuities and changes in the institutional underpinnings of capitalist development and the main driving forces behind them. The book thus provides an integrated analysis of how changing institutional practices in business, financial, and labour systems interact and affect the evolution of capitalist political economies in the region.

Handbook of Japanese Sociolinguistics

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  • Book Code : 150150147X
  • Total of Pages : 709
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  • Pdf File: handbook-of-japanese-sociolinguistics.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This volume is the first comprehensive survey of the sociolinguistic studies on Japanese. Japanese, like other languages, has developed a highly diverse linguistic system that is realized as variation shaped by interactions of linguistic and social factors. This volume primarily focuses on both classic and current topics of sociolinguistics that were first studied in Western languages, and then subsequently examined in the Japanese language. The topics in this volume cover major issues in sociolinguistics that also characterize sociolinguistic features of Japanese. Such topics as gender, honorifics, and politeness are particularly pertinent to Japanese, as is well-known in general sociolinguistics. At the same time, this volume includes studies on other topics such as social stratification, discourse, contact, and language policy, which have been widely conducted in the Japanese context. In addition, this volume introduces "domestic" approaches to sociolinguistics developed in Japan. They emerged a few decades before the development of the so-called Labovian and Hymesian sociolinguistics in the US, and they have shaped a unique development of sociolinguistic studies in Japan. Contents Part I: History Chapter 1: Research methodology Florian Coulmas Chapter 2: Japan and the international sociolinguistic community Yoshiyuki Asahi and J.K. Chambers Chapter 3: Language life Takehiro Shioda Part II: Sociolinguistic patterns Chapter 4: Style, prestige, and salience in language change in progress Fumio Inoue Chapter 5: Group language (shūdango) Taro Nakanishi Chapter 6: Male-female differences in Japanese Yoshimitsu Ozaki Part III: Language and gender Chapter 7: Historical overview of language and gender studies: From past to future Orie Endo and Hideko Abe Chapter 8: Genderization in Japanese: A typological view Katsue A. Reynolds Chapter 9: Feminist approaches to Japanese language, gender, and sexuality Momoko Nakamura Part IV: Honorifics and politeness Chapter 10: Japanese honorifics Takashi Nagata Chapter 11: Intersection of traditional Japanese honorific theories and Western politeness theories Masato Takiura Chapter 12: Intersection of discourse politeness theory and interpersonal Communication Mayumi Usami Part V: Culture and discourse phenomena Chapter 13: Subjective expression and its roles in Japanese discourse: Its development in Japanese and impact on general linguistics Yoko Ujiie Chapter 14: Style, character, and creativity in the discourse of Japanese popular culture: Focusing on light novels and keitai novels Senko K. Maynard Chapter 15: Sociopragmatics of political discourse Shoji Azuma Part VI: Language contact Chapter 16: Contact dialects of Japanese Yoshiyuki Asahi Chapter 17: Japanese loanwords and lendwords Frank E. Daulton Chapter 18: Japanese language varieties outside Japan Mie Hiramoto Chapter 19: Language contact and contact languages in Japan Daniel Long Part VII: Language policy Chapter 20: Chinese characters: Variation, policy, and landscape Hiroyuki Sasahara Chapter 21: Language, economy, and nation Katsumi Shibuya

Income Inequality

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  • Total of Pages : 540
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  • Pdf File: income-inequality.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This state-of-the-art volume presents comparative, empirical research on a topic that has long preoccupied scholars, politicians, and everyday citizens: economic inequality. While income and wealth inequality across all populations is the primary focus, the contributions to this book pay special attention to the middle class, a segment often not addressed in inequality literature. Written by leading scholars in the field of economic inequality, all 17 chapters draw on microdata from the databases of LIS, an esteemed cross-national data center based in Luxembourg. Using LIS data to structure a comparative approach, the contributors paint a complex portrait of inequality across affluent countries at the beginning of the 21st century. The volume also trail-blazes new research into inequality in countries newly entering the LIS databases, including Japan, Iceland, India, and South Africa.

Education and Equality in Japan

By William K. Cummings
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Book Short Summary:

On the basis of direct personal observation in the classroom, systematically gathered data, and extensive reading in primary sources, the author provides a rich description of how a society can be gradually transformed by the educational process in its schools. He then relates this process to the problems of the advanced industrial world. Originally published in 1980. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Social Change and the Individual

By Kazuko Tsurumi
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  • Book Code : 1400871514
  • Total of Pages : 456
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  • Pdf File: social-change-and-the-individual.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A distinguished Japanese scholar counterbalances the current preoccupation among sociologists with childhood socialization by exploring the changes in values and attitudes among adults in Japan before and after World War II. Originally published in 1970. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

World Social Report 2020

By Department of Economic and Social Affairs
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  • Total of Pages : 216
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  • Pdf File: world-social-report-2020.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This report examines the links between inequality and other major global trends (or megatrends), with a focus on technological change, climate change, urbanization and international migration. The analysis pays particular attention to poverty and labour market trends, as they mediate the distributional impacts of the major trends selected. It also provides policy recommendations to manage these megatrends in an equitable manner and considers the policy implications, so as to reduce inequalities and support their implementation.

Social Mobility in Industrial Society

By Seymour Lipset
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  • Book Code : 1351306340
  • Total of Pages : 332
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  • Pdf File: social-mobility-in-industrial-society.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In a careful analysis of the existing literature, the authors marshal an imposing array of evidence in support of their major argument that social mobility is an integral and continuing aspect of the process of industrialization. This classic volume continues to be a basic reference source in the field of occupational mobility.

Deviance and inequality in Japan

By Yoder, Robert Stuart
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  • Publisher : Policy Press
  • Book Code : 1847428339
  • Total of Pages : 240
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 182
  • Pdf File: deviance-and-inequality-in-japan.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Japanese youth and foreign migrants face stringent institutionalised controls in Japan. This book questions the efficacy of such social controls, focusing on the interrelation of inequality (powerlessness, discriminate controls and class inequality) and deviance (largely derived from power and the violation of informal and formal norms). It provides a comprehensive detailed description and explanation of inequality and deviance of Japanese youth and 17 foreign migrant groups. The book is aimed at individuals, students and academicians interested in Japan area studies.

Stratification in Higher Education

By Yossi Shavit
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  • Publisher : Stanford University Press
  • Book Code : 9780804768146
  • Total of Pages : 504
  • Category : Social Science
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  • Pdf File: stratification-in-higher-education.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The mass expansion of higher education is one of the most important social transformations of the second half of the twentieth century. In this book, scholars from 15 countries, representing Western and Eastern Europe, East Asia, Israel, Australia, and the United States, assess the links between this expansion and inequality in the national context. Contrary to most expectations, the authors show that as access to higher education expands, all social classes benefit. Neither greater diversification nor privatization in higher education results in greater inequality. In some cases, especially where the most advantaged already have significant access to higher education, opportunities increase most for persons from disadvantaged origins. Also, during the late twentieth century, opportunities for women increased faster than those for men. Offering a new spin on conventional wisdom, this book shows how all social classes benefit from the expansion of higher education.

Doing Fieldwork in Japan

By Theodore C. Bestor,Patricia G. Steinhoff,Victoria Lyon Bestor
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  • Publisher : University of Hawaii Press
  • Book Code : 0824862236
  • Total of Pages : 425
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 610
  • Pdf File: doing-fieldwork-in-japan.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Doing Fieldwork in Japan taps the expertise of North American and European specialists on the practicalities of conducting long-term research in the social sciences and cultural studies. In lively first-person accounts, they discuss their successes and failures doing fieldwork across rural and urban Japan in a wide range of settings: among religious pilgrims and adolescent consumers; on factory assembly lines and in high schools and wholesale seafood markets; with bureaucrats in charge of defense, foreign aid, and social welfare policy; inside radical political movements; among adherents of "New Religions"; inside a prosecutor's office and the JET Program for foreign English teachers; with journalists in the NHK newsroom; while researching race, ethnicity, and migration; and amidst fans and consumers of contemporary popular culture. Contributors: David M. Arase, Theodore C. Bestor, Victoria Lyon Bestor, Mary C. Brinton, John Creighton Campbell, Samuel Coleman, Suzanne Culter, Andrew Gordon, Helen Hardacre, Joy Hendry, David T. Johnson, Ellis S. Krauss, David L. McConnell, Ian Reader, Glenda S. Roberts, Joshua Hotaka Roth, Robert J. Smith, Sheila A. Smith, Patricia G. Steinhoff, Merry Isaacs White, Christine R. Yano.

State and Administration in Japan and Germany

By Michio Muramatsu,Frieder Naschold
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter
  • Book Code : 3110868954
  • Total of Pages : 363
  • Category : Business & Economics
  • Members : 406
  • Pdf File: state-and-administration-in-japan-and-germany.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Read and download full book State and Administration in Japan and Germany

Visions of Precarity in Japanese Popular Culture and Literature

By Kristina Iwata-Weickgenannt,Roman Rosenbaum
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1317619102
  • Total of Pages : 249
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 790
  • Pdf File: visions-of-precarity-in-japanese-popular-culture-and-literature.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Recent natural as well as man-made cataclysmic events have dramatically changed the status quo of contemporary Japanese society, and following the Asia-Pacific war’s never-ending ‘postwar’ period, Japan has been dramatically forced into a zeitgeist of saigo or ‘post-disaster.’ This radically new worldview has significantly altered the socio-political as well as literary perception of one of the world’s potential superpowers, and in this book the contributors closely examine how Japan’s new paradigm of precarious existence is expressed through a variety of pop-cultural as well as literary media. Addressing the transition from post-war to post-disaster literature, this book examines the rise of precarity consciousness in Japanese socio-cultural discourse. The chapters investigate the extent to which we can talk about the emergence of a new literary paradigm of precarity in the world of Japanese popular culture. Through careful examination of a variety of contemporary texts ranging from literature, manga, anime, television drama and film this study offers an interpretation of the many dissonant voices in Japanese society. The contributors also outline the related social issues in Japanese society and culture, providing a comprehensive overview of the global trends that link Japan with the rest of the world. Visions of Precarity in Japanese Popular Culture and Literature will be of great interest to students and scholars of contemporary Japan, Japanese culture and society, popular culture and social and cultural history.

Social Inequality in Japan

By Sawako Shirahase
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1135934207
  • Total of Pages : 244
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 419
  • Pdf File: social-inequality-in-japan.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Japan was the first Asian country to become a mature industrial society, and throughout the 1970s and the 1980s, was viewed as an ‘all-middle-class society’. However since the 1990s there have been growing doubts as to the real degree of social equality in Japan, particularly in the context of dramatic demographic shifts as the population ages whilst fertility levels continue to fall. This book compares Japan with America, Britain, Italy, France, Germany, Sweden and Taiwan in order to determine whether inequality really is a social problem in Japan. With a focus on impact demographic shifts, Sawako Shirahase examines female labour market participation, income inequality among households with children, the state of the family, generational change, single person households and income distribution among the aged, and asks whether increasing inequality and is uniquely Japanese, or if it is a social problem common across all of the societies included in this study. Crucially, this book shows that Japan is distinctive not in terms of the degree of inequality in the society, but rather, in how acutely inequality is perceived. Further, the data shows that Japan differs from the other countries examined in terms of the gender gap in both the labour market and the family, and in inequality among single-person households – single men and women, including lifelong bachelors and spinsters – and also among single parent households, who pay a heavy price for having deviated from the expected pattern of life in Japan. Drawing on extensive empirical data, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars interested in Japanese culture and society, Japanese studies and social policy more generally.

Women and the Economic Miracle

By Mary C. Brinton
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Univ of California Press
  • Book Code : 9780520915473
  • Total of Pages : 320
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 441
  • Pdf File: women-and-the-economic-miracle.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This lucid, hard-hitting book explores a central paradox of the Japanese economy: the relegation of women to low-paying, dead-end jobs in a workforce that depends on their labor to maintain its status as a world economic leader. Drawing upon historical materials, survey and statistical data, and extensive interviews in Japan, Mary Brinton provides an in-depth and original examination of the role of gender in Japan's phenomenal postwar economic growth. Brinton finds that the educational system, the workplace, and the family in Japan have shaped the opportunities open to female workers. Women move in and out of the workforce depending on their age and family duties, a great disadvantage in a system that emphasizes seniority and continuous work experience. Brinton situates the vicious cycle that perpetuates traditional gender roles within the concept of human capital development, whereby Japanese society "underinvests" in the capabilities of women. The effects of this underinvestment are reinforced indirectly as women sustain male human capital through unpaid domestic labor and psychological support. Brinton provides a clear analysis of a society that remains misunderstood, but whose economic transformation has been watched with great interest by the industrialized world.

Social Contracts Under Stress

By Olivier Zunz,Leonard Schoppa,Nobuhiro Hiwatari
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Russell Sage Foundation
  • Book Code : 1610445724
  • Total of Pages : 444
  • Category : Political Science
  • Members : 963
  • Pdf File: social-contracts-under-stress.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The years following World War II saw a huge expansion of the middle classes in the world's industrialized nations, with a significant part of the working class becoming absorbed into the middle class. Although never explicitly formalized, it was as though a new social contract called for government, business, and labor to work together to ensure greater political freedom and more broadly shared economic prosperity. For the most part, they succeeded. In Social Contracts Under Stress, eighteen experts from seven countries examine this historic transformation and look ahead to assess how the middle class might fare in the face of slowing economic growth and increasing globalization. The first section of the book focuses on the differing experiences of Germany, Britain, France, the United States, and Japan as they became middle-class societies. The British working classes, for example, were slowest to consider themselves middle class, while in Japan by the 1960s, most workers had abandoned working-class identity. The French remain more fragmented among various middle classes and resist one homogenous entity. Part II presents compelling evidence that the rise of a huge middle class was far from inclusive or free of social friction. Some contributors discuss how the social contract reinforced long-standing prejudices toward minorities and women. In the United States, Ira Katznelson writes, Southern politicians used measures that should have promoted equality, such as the GI bill, to exclude blacks from full access to opportunity. In her review of gender and family models, Chiara Saraceno finds that Mediterranean countries have mobilized the power of the state to maintain a division of labor between men and women. The final section examines what effect globalization might have on the middle class. Leonard Schoppa's careful analysis of the relevant data shows how globalization has pushed "less skilled workers down and more skilled workers up out of a middle class that had for a few decades been home to both." Although Europe has resisted the rise of inequality more effectively than the United States or Japan, several contributors wonder how long that resistance can last. Social Contracts Under Stress argues convincingly that keeping the middle class open and inclusive in the face of current economic pressures will require a collective will extending across countries. This book provides an invaluable guide for assessing the issues that must be considered in such an effort.

Japanese Working Class Lives

By James Roberson
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 113469282X
  • Total of Pages : 240
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 692
  • Pdf File: japanese-working-class-lives.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This ethnographic study examines the lives of Japanese workers in small firms and analysis their experiences of working life, leisure and education. This unique case study of the Shintani Metals Company illustrates the ways in which employees lives extend beyond their work. Japanese Working Class Lives provides a valuable alternative view of working life outside the large corporations. Roberson demonstrates that the Japanese working class is more diverse than Western stereotypes of be-suited salary-men would suggest.

Sustainability in Contemporary Rural Japan

By Stephanie Assmann
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1317577248
  • Total of Pages : 198
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 101
  • Pdf File: sustainability-in-contemporary-rural-japan.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Rural communities in Japan have suffered from significant depopulation and economic downturn in post-war years. Low birth rates, aging populations, agricultural decline and youth migration to large cities have been compounded by the triple disaster of 11 March 2011, which destroyed farming and fishing communities and left thousands of people homeless. This book identifies these challenges and acknowledges that an era of post-growth has arrived in Japan. Through exploring new forms of regional employment, community empowerment, and reverse migration, the authors address potential opportunities and benefits that may help to create and ensure the quality of life in depopulating areas and post-disaster scenarios. This book will be of interest not only to students of Japanese society, but also to those outside of Japan who are seeking new approaches for tackling depopulation challenges.