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Russia in Afghanistan and Chechnya: Military Strategic Culture and the Paradoxes of Asymmetric Conflict

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  • ISBN Code: : 1428910743
  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
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  • Pdf File: israel-s-wars-of-attrition.pdf

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This book offers a comprehensive argument for why pre-existing international law on cluster munitions was inadequate to deal with the full scope of humanitarian consequences associated with their use. The book undertakes an interdisciplinary legal analysis of restraints and prohibitions on the use of cluster munitions under international humanitarian law, human rights law, and international criminal law, as well as in relation to the recently adopted Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM). The book goes on to offer an in-depth substantive and procedural analysis of the negotiations which led to the 2008 CCM, in part based on the author’s experiences as an adviser to Cluster Munitions Coalition-Austria. Cluster Munitions and International Law is essential reading for practitioners and scholars of International Law, including International Humanitarian, Human Rights, International Criminal or Disarmament Law and anyone interested in legal and humanitarian perspectives on cluster munitions legislation and policy. It is unique in bringing a practitioner’s perspective to a scholarly work.

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Book Short Summary:

Grand strategy integrates military, political, and economic means to pursue states ultimate objectives in the international system. American grand strategy had been in a state of ux prior to 2001, as containment of the Soviet Union gave way to a wider range of apparently lesser challenges. The 9/11 attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade towers, however, transformed the grand strategy debate and led to a sweeping reevaluation of American security policy. It may still be too early to expect this reevaluation to have produced a complete or nal response to 9/11 policies as complex as national grand strategy do not change overnight. But after 3 years of sustained debate and adaptation, it is reasonable to ask what this process has produced so far, and how well the results to date serve American interests.

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Book Short Summary:

1991 年「波灣戰爭」(Gulf War)的結果已證實失去防空戰力的伊拉克,徒有百萬大軍,只能處於被動挨打,且終遭致失敗的命運。因此,就陸軍而言,更可能是處於無空優狀況下之窘境,故野戰防空如何以「創新」想法及「不對稱」 (Asymmetric)作法應對不同的空中威脅,除與有生戰力能否確保息息相關,更是未來防衛作戰能否成功之關鍵。 以史為鑑,防空作戰不僅為臺澎防衛作戰之緒戰,更將對全般戰局產生重大影響。尤其當前共軍各式航空器、飛彈發展之迅速,國軍實處於隨時可能遭敵方空中奇襲之威脅。本文依據美國《2020 中共軍力報告書》評估共軍於第一島鏈內已具「反介入/區域拒止」(Anti-Access & Area Denial, A2/AD)以及對臺灣應急(Contingency)作戰能力。另依美 國智庫「2049 計畫研究所」易思安(Ian Easton)所著《中共攻臺大解密》顯示,共軍已可於不同作戰階段,對國軍施 以單一或多種型式的「不對稱」作戰。因此,本研究期透過歷史及文獻回顧方式,客觀理解交戰雙方甚至多方如何以某種形式的「不對稱」方式進行外,另以專家訪談方式綜整各 種意見與觀點,確立各種「敵優我劣」與「敵劣我優」等狀況下,輔以運用 SWOT 決策分析,探究國軍如何於聯合防空架構下,省思未來陸軍野戰防空之發展與運用,並據以提出具體可行性之建議。

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  • Pdf File: asymmetrische-kriege.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Vietnam-, Afghanistan- und Irakkrieg: Immer wieder erleiden Staaten mit hochgerüsteten Armeen völlig unerwartete Niederlagen gegen vermeintlich schwächere Gegner. Diese Art des Krieges beherrscht seit Jahren die Schlagzeilen und den wissenschaftlichen Diskurs. Besser bekannt sind diese asymmetrischen Kriege auch als Guerilla-, Partisanen-, oder "Neue Kriege". Wieso verlieren Staaten asymmetrische Kriege, obwohl sie in fast allen Aspekten überlegen sind? Was müssen sie unternehmen, um Niederlagen zu vermeiden? Lukas von Krshiwoblozki geht den Antworten auf diese Fragen nach − angesichts des 13-jährigen Kampfes der NATO gegen die Taliban und den jüngsten Ereignissen in Syrien und Irak eine immer dringlicher werdende Aufgabe.

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  • Total of Pages : 368
  • Category : Social Science
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  • Pdf File: eigendynamische-bürgerkriege.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Auch im 21. Jahrhundert wird die Welt von lang anhaltenden Bürgerkriegen erschüttert - das aktuellste Beispiel ist der nicht enden wollende Bürgerkrieg in Syrien. Bis zu Beginn der 1990er Jahre wurden diese innerstaatlichen Kriege zumeist als politisch motivierte Gewaltkonflikte oder Stellvertreterkriege angesehen. Danach setzen sich mit Ende des Kalten Krieges und unter dem Eindruck des Genozids in Ruanda sowie des Bosnienkrieges neue Erklärungsansätze durch, die die flächendeckende Gewalt primär auf Habgiermotive oder traditionelle ethnische Feindschaften zurückführen. Gegen diese schablonenhaften Deutungsmuster entfaltet Stefan Deißler eine Perspektive, die der vielschichtigen Komplexität des Phänomens Bürgerkrieg näher kommt. Ohne die tragende Rolle der ethnischen, ökonomischen oder politischen sozialen Gruppen zu vernachlässigen, rückt der Autor die kriegführenden Organisationen selbst in den Fokus und unterzieht die Beziehungen zwischen Kombattanten und Zivilisten einer kritischen Betrachtung. Unter Rekurs auf den seit über 50 Jahren währenden Konflikt in Kolumbien und weitere Beispiele weist er nach, dass die selbst ernannten Repräsentanten unterschiedlicher Bevölkerungsgruppen oftmals mit brutaler Gewalt die Kooperation der "Repräsentierten" erzwingen und dass die Bedürfnisse und Interessen der Zivilbevölkerung während der Dauer derartiger Konflikte weitgehend unberücksichtigt bleiben. Zugleich wird ersichtlich, welcher fatalen Logik das Kriegsgeschehen in vielen Fällen folgt: Zahlreiche innerstaatliche Kriege werden durch immanente Eigendynamiken angetrieben. Die Kriegsparteien nötigen sich wechselseitig zur Fortsetzung des Konflikts oder schaffen kollektiv einen strukturellen Zwang zur kontinuierlichen Wiederholung der Kriegshandlungen. Diese Dynamik zu durchbrechen, ist eine der großen Herausforderungen für die gegenwärtigen Friedensinitiativen.

Strategic Stability in the Post-Cold War World and the Future of Nuclear Disarmament

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Book Short Summary:

This Report contains a Consensus Report and the papers submitted to the April 6 -10, 1995 NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Strategic Stability In The Post-Cold War World And The Future Of Nuclear Disarmament, held in Washington D. C. , United States Of America of at The Airlie Conference Center. The workshop was sponsored by the NATO Division Scientific and Environmental Affairs as part of its ongoing outreach programme to widen and deepen scientific contacts between NATO member countries and the Cooperation Partner countries of the former Warsaw Treaty Organization. The participants recognize that the collapse of the former Soviet Union has left a conceptual vacuum in the definition of a new world order. Never before have the components of world order all changed so rapidly, so deeply, or so globally. As Henry Kissinger points out, the emergence of the new world order will have answered three fundamental questions:" What are the basic units of the international order? What are their means of interacting? and What are the goals on behalf of which they interact? " The main question is whether the establishment and maintenance of an international system will turn out to be a conscious design, or the outgrowth of a test of strength. The concept of a planning framework that could shape or govern these interactions is emerging and may now be at hand. Capturing this emerging framework is the thrust of this NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop.

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  • Pdf File: the-paradox-of-american-power.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Not since the Roman Empire has any nation had as much economic, cultural, and military power as the United States does today. Yet, as has become all too evident through the terrorist attacks of September 11th and the impending threat of the acquisition of nuclear weapons by Iran, that power is not enough to solve global problems--like terrorism, environmental degradation, and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction--without involving other nations. Here Joseph S. Nye, Jr. focuses on the rise of these and other new challenges and explains clearly why America must adopt a more cooperative engagement with the rest of the world.

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Book Short Summary:

Hezbollah¿s conduct of its 2006 campaign in southern Lebanon has become an important case for the U.S. defense debate. Some see the future of warfare as one of non-state opponents employing irregular methods, and advocate a transformation of the U.S. military to meet such threats. Others point to the 2006 campaign as an example of a non-state actor waging a state-like conventional war, and argue that a more traditional U.S. military posture is needed to deal with such enemies. This monograph examines Hezbollah¿s conduct of the 2006 campaign. The authors use evidence collected from a series of 36 primary source interviews with Israeli participants in the fighting who were in a position to observe Hezbollah¿s actual behavior in the field.

A Brief History of Human Culture in the 20th Century

By Qi Xin
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  • Publisher : Springer Nature
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  • Category : History
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  • Pdf File: a-brief-history-of-human-culture-in-the-20th-century.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book examines the cultural concepts that guided the development of the “age of mankind”— the changes that took place in historical, philosophical, scientific, religious, literary, and artistic thought in the 20th century. It discusses a broad range of major topics, including the spread of commercial capitalism; socialist revolutions; the two world wars; anti-colonialist national liberation movements; scientific progress; the clashes and fusion of Eastern and Western cultures; globalization; women’s rights movements; mass media and entertainment; the age of information and the digital society. The combination of cultural phenomena and theoretical descriptions ensures a unity of culture, history and logic. Lastly, the book explores the enormous changes in lifestyles and the virtualized future, revealing cultural characteristics and discussing 21st -century trends in the context of information technology, globalization and the digital era.

Understanding Cyber Conflict

By George Perkovich,Ariel E. Levite
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  • Publisher : Georgetown University Press
  • Book Code : 1626164991
  • Total of Pages : 312
  • Category : Political Science
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  • Pdf File: understanding-cyber-conflict.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Cyber weapons and the possibility of cyber conflict—including interference in foreign political campaigns, industrial sabotage, attacks on infrastructure, and combined military campaigns—require policymakers, scholars, and citizens to rethink twenty-first-century warfare. Yet because cyber capabilities are so new and continually developing, there is little agreement about how they will be deployed, how effective they can be, and how they can be managed. Written by leading scholars, the fourteen case studies in this volume will help policymakers, scholars, and students make sense of contemporary cyber conflict through historical analogies to past military-technological problems. The chapters are divided into three groups. The first—What Are Cyber Weapons Like?—examines the characteristics of cyber capabilities and how their use for intelligence gathering, signaling, and precision striking compares with earlier technologies for such missions. The second section—What Might Cyber Wars Be Like?—explores how lessons from several wars since the early nineteenth century, including the World Wars, could apply—or not—to cyber conflict in the twenty-first century. The final section—What Is Preventing and/or Managing Cyber Conflict Like?—offers lessons from past cases of managing threatening actors and technologies.

Russia and China

By Michal Lubina
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  • Publisher : Verlag Barbara Budrich
  • Book Code : 3847410725
  • Total of Pages : 328
  • Category : Political Science
  • Members : 265
  • Pdf File: russia-and-china.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book depicts the sophisticated relationship between Russia and China as a pragmatic one, a political “marriage of convenience”. Yet at the same time the relationship is stable, and will remain so. After all, bilateral relations are usually based on pragmatic interests and the pursuit of these interests is the very essence of foreign policy. And, as often happens in life, the most long-lasting marriages are those based on convenience. The highly complex, complicated, ambiguous and yet, indeed, successful relationship between Russia and China throughout the past 25 years is difficult to grasp theoretically. Russian and Chinese elites are hard-core realists in their foreign policies, and the neorealist school in international relations seems to be the most adequate one to research Sino-Russian relations. Realistically, throughout this period China achieved a multidimensional advantage over Russia. Yet, simultaneously Russia-China relations do not follow the patterns of power politics. Beijing knows its limits and does not go into extremes. Rather, China successfully seeks to build a longterm, stable relationship based on Chinese terms, where both sides gain, albeit China gains a little more. Russia in this agenda does not necessary lose; just gains a little less out of this asymmetric deal. Thus, a new model of bilateral relations emerges, which may be called – by paraphrasing the slogan of Chinese diplomacy – as “asymmetric win-win” formula. This model is a kind of “back to the past“ – a contemporary equivalent of the first model of Russia-China relations: the modus vivendi from the 17th century, achieved after the Nerchinsk treaty.

Street Without Joy

By Bernard B. Fall
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  • Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield
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  • Total of Pages : 416
  • Category : History
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  • Pdf File: street-without-joy.pdf

Book Short Summary:

First published in 1961 by Stackpole Books, Street without Joy is a classic of military history. Journalist and scholar Bernard Fall vividly captured the sights, sounds, and smells of the brutal— and politically complicated—conflict between the French and the Communist-led Vietnamese nationalists in Indochina. The French fought to the bitter end, but even with the lethal advantages of a modern military, they could not stave off the Viet Minh insurgency of hit-and-run tactics, ambushes, booby traps, and nighttime raids. The final French defeat came at Dien Bien Phu in 1954, setting the stage for American involvement and a far bloodier chapter in Vietnam‘s history. Fall combined graphic reporting with deep scholarly knowledge of Vietnam and its colonial history in a book memorable in its descriptions of jungle fighting and insightful in its arguments. After more than a half a century in print, Street without Joy remains required reading.

Handbook of the Sociology of the Military

By Giuseppe Caforio
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  • Publisher : Springer
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  • Category : Social Science
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  • Pdf File: handbook-of-the-sociology-of-the-military.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This accessible handbook is the first of its kind to examine the sociological approach to the study of the military. The contents are compiled from the work of researchers at universities around the world, as well as military officers devoted to the sector of study. Beginning with a review of studies prior to contemporary research, the book provides a comprehensive survey of the topic. The scope of coverage extends to civic-military relations, including issues surrounding democratic control of the armed forces; military culture; professional training; conditions and problems of minorities in the armed forces; an examination of structural change within the military over the years including new duties and functions following the Cold War.

Sustainable Security

By Jeremi Suri,Benjamin Valentino
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 0190611502
  • Total of Pages : 400
  • Category : Political Science
  • Members : 351
  • Pdf File: sustainable-security.pdf

Book Short Summary:

As the world shifts away from the unquestioned American hegemony that followed in the wake of the Cold War, the United States is likely to face new kinds of threats and sharper resource constraints than it has in the past. However, the country's alliances, military institutions, and national security strategy have changed little since the Cold War. American foreign and defense policies, therefore, should be assessed for their fitness for achieving sustainable national security amidst the dynamism of the international political economy, changing domestic politics, and even a changing climate. This book brings together sixteen leading scholars from across political science, history, and political economy to highlight a range of American security considerations that deserve a larger role in both scholarship and strategic decision-making. In these chapters, scholars of political economy and the American defense budget examine the economic engine that underlies U.S. military might and the ways the country deploys these vast (but finite) resources. Historians illuminate how past great powers coped with changing international orders through strategic and institutional innovations. And regional experts assess America's current long-term engagements, from NATO to the chaos of the Middle East to the web of alliances in Asia, deepening understandings that help guard against both costly commitments and short-sighted retrenchments. This interdisciplinary volume sets an agenda for future scholarship that links politics, economics, and history in pursuit of sustainable security for the United States - and greater peace and stability for Americans and non-Americans alike.

The U.S. Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual

By John A. United States Army,United States Marine Corps
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : University of Chicago Press
  • Book Code : 0226841529
  • Total of Pages : 472
  • Category : Technology & Engineering
  • Members : 300
  • Pdf File: the-u-s-army-marine-corps-counterinsurgency-field-manual.pdf

Book Short Summary:

When the U.S. military invaded Iraq, it lacked a common understanding of the problems inherent in counterinsurgency campaigns. It had neither studied them, nor developed doctrine and tactics to deal with them. It is fair to say that in 2003, most Army officers knew more about the U.S. Civil War than they did about counterinsurgency. The U.S. Army / Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual was written to fill that void. The result of unprecedented collaboration among top U.S. military experts, scholars, and practitioners in the field, the manual espouses an approach to combat that emphasizes constant adaptation and learning, the importance of decentralized decision-making, the need to understand local politics and customs, and the key role of intelligence in winning the support of the population. The manual also emphasizes the paradoxical and often counterintuitive nature of counterinsurgency operations: sometimes the more you protect your forces, the less secure you are; sometimes the more force you use, the less effective it is; sometimes doing nothing is the best reaction. An new introduction by Sarah Sewall, director of the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government, places the manual in critical and historical perspective, explaining the significance and potential impact of this revolutionary challenge to conventional U.S. military doctrine. An attempt by our military to redefine itself in the aftermath of 9/11 and the new world of international terrorism, The U.S. Army / Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual will play a vital role in American military campaigns for years to come. The University of Chicago Press will donate a portion of the proceeds from this book to the Fisher House Foundation, a private-public partnership that supports the families of America’s injured servicemen. To learn more about the Fisher House Foundation, visit www.fisherhouse.org.

黃埔學報第77期

By 厲復霖
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : 中華民國政府出版品
  • Book Code : N.a
  • Total of Pages : 220
  • Category : Reference
  • Members : 117
  • Pdf File: 黃埔學報第77期.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Read and download full book 黃埔學報第77期