Mereology: A Philosophical Introduction Book

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Mereology: A Philosophical Introduction

By Giorgio Lando
  • ISBN Code: : 147258368X
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Pages : 240
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 815
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : mereology.pdf

Book Excerpt :

Parthood and composition are everywhere. The leg of a table is part of the table, the word "Christmas" is part of the sentence "I wish you a merry Christmas", the 13th century is part of the Middle Ages. The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg compose Benelux, the body of a deer is composed of a huge number of cells, the Middle Ages are composed of the Early Middle Ages, High Middle Ages, and Late Middle Ages. Is there really a general theory covering every instance of parthood and composition? Is classical mereology this general theory? Are its seemingly counter-intuitive features serious defects? Mereology: A Philosophical Introduction addresses the multifaceted and lively philosophical debates surrounding these questions, and defends the idea that classical mereology is indeed the general and exhaustive theory of parthood and composition in the domain of concrete entities. Several examples of parthood and composition, involving entities of different kinds, are scrutinised in depth. Incidentally, mereology is shown to interact in a surprising way with metaontology. Presenting a well-organized and comprehensive discussion of parthood and related notions, Mereology: A Philosophical Introduction contributes to a better understanding of a subject central to contemporary metaphysics.

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  • Pdf File: process-action-and-experience.pdf

Book Short Summary:

There has been a philosophical upheaval recently in our understanding of the metaphysics of the mind. The philosophy of mind and action has traditionally treated its subject matter as consisting of states and events, and completely ignored the category of ongoing process. So the mental things that happen - experiences and actions - have been taken to be completed events and not ongoing processes. But events by their very nature as completed wholes are never present to the agent or subject; only ongoing processes can be present to a subject in the way required for conscious experience and practical self-knowledge. This suggests that a proper understanding of processes is required to understand subjective experience and agency. This volume explores the possibility and advantages of taking processes to be the subject matter of the philosophy of mind and action. The central defining feature of the process argument is its use of the progressive (as opposed to perfective) aspect. But beyond this, philosophers working on the metaphysics of processes do not agree. The contributors to this volume take up this argument in the metaphysics of processes. Are processes continuants? Are they particulars at all, or should we rather be thinking of process activity as a kind of stuff? Process, Action, and Experience considers whether practical reasoning and practical self-knowledge require thinking of action in process terms, and it considers arguments for the processive nature of conscious experience.

Material Constitution

By Michael Rea
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  • Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
  • Book Code : 1461639190
  • Total of Pages : 200
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 808
  • Pdf File: material-constitution.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The only anthology available on material constitution, this book collects important recent work on well known puzzles in metaphysics and philosophy of mind. The extensive, clearly written introduction helps to make the essays accessible to a wide audience.

Discrete

By
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Book Code : 111950032X
  • Total of Pages : 136
  • Category : Architecture
  • Members : 689
  • Pdf File: discrete.pdf

Book Short Summary:

After two decades of experimentation with the digital, the prevalent paradigm of formal continuity is being revised and questioned by an emerging generation of architects and theorists. While the world struggles with a global housing crisis and the impact of accelerated automation on labour, digital designers’ narrow focus on mere style and continuous differentiation seems increasingly out of touch. This issue charts an emerging body of work that is based on a computational understanding of the discrete part or building block – elements that are as scalable, accessible and versatile as digital data. The discrete proposes that a new, digital understanding of assembly, based on parts, contains the greatest promise for a complex, open-ended, adaptable architecture. This approach capitalises on the digital economy and automation, with the potential of the digital to democratise production and increase access. The digital not only has deep implications for how we design and produce architecture; it is first and foremost a new system of production with economic, social and political consequences that need to be taken into account. This issue presents a diverse body of work focused on the notion of the discrete: from design experiments and aesthetics, to urban models, tectonics, distributed robots, new material organisations and post-capitalist scenarios engaging with automation. Contributors: Viola Ago, Mario Carpo, Emmanuelle Chiappone-Piriou, Mollie Claypool, Manuel Jimenez García, Daniel Koehler and Rasa Navasaityte, Immanuel Koh, Neil Leach, Ryan Manning, Philippe Morel, M Casey Rehm, Jose Sanchez, Marrikka Trotter, Manja van de Worp, Maria Yablonina and Lei Zheng. Featured Architects: Kengo Kuma, Lab-eds, Plethora Project, MadM, EZCT, Eragatory and Studio Kinch.

Medieval Mereology

By Desmond Paul Henry
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  • Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing
  • Book Code : 9027277990
  • Total of Pages : 609
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 632
  • Pdf File: medieval-mereology.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Mereology is the theory which deals with parts and wholes in the concrete sense, and this study follows its varied fortunes during the Middle Ages. Preliminary indications as to its metaphysical situation are followed by a brief sketch of Boethius' contribution. Peter Abelard, Gilbert of Poitiers, Clarembald of Arras, and Joscelin of Soissons are among the twelfth-century authors examined. The effect of the subsequent recovery of Aristotle's Metaphysica on Mereology is typified by sketches of the many and varied uses made of the latter by Aquinas. A brief sample of Buridanian treatment is followed by an account of those applications made under the umbrella of thirteenth-century comment on Aristotle's De Sophisticis Elenchis. The curiously original theories of Wyclif are brought to light, as also also samples from Walter Bruleigh, Nicholas of Paris, William of Ockham, and Paul of Venice. Readers interested in such subjects as logic, metaphysics, philosophy, theology, linguistics, pyschology, and their history, will find the work relevant to their studies. No logical symbolism is used in the main body of the book, but some contemporary background is appended so that those who wish to do so may follow it up.

Heidegger and the Contradiction of Being

By Filippo Casati
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  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1000506126
  • Total of Pages : 200
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 416
  • Pdf File: heidegger-and-the-contradiction-of-being.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book offers a clear, analytic, and innovative interpretation of Heidegger’s late work. This period of Heidegger’s philosophy remains largely unexplored by analytic philosophers, who consider it filled with inconsistencies and paradoxical ideas, particularly concerning the notions of Being and nothingness. This book takes seriously the claim that the late Heidegger endorses dialetheism – namely the position according to which some contradictions are true – and shows that the idea that Being is both an entity and not an entity is neither incoherent nor logically trivial. The author achieves this by presenting and defending the idea that reality has an inconsistent structure. In doing so, he takes one of the most discussed topics in current analytic metaphysics, grounding theory, into a completely unexplored area. Additionally, in order to make sense of Heidegger’s concept of nothingness, the author introduces an original axiomatic mereological system that, having a paraconsistent logic as a base logic, can tolerate inconsistencies without falling into logical triviality. This is the first book to set forth a complete and detailed discussion of the late Heidegger in the framework of analytic metaphysics. It will be of interest to Heidegger scholars and analytic philosophers working on theories of grounding, mereology, dialetheism, and paraconsistent logic.

The Structure of Objects

By Kathrin Koslicki
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  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Book Code : 0191609137
  • Total of Pages : 310
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 305
  • Pdf File: the-structure-of-objects.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Kathrin Koslicki offers an analysis of ordinary materials objects, those material objects to which we take ourselves to be committed in ordinary, scientifically informed discourse. She focuses particularly on the question of how the parts of such objects are related to the wholes which they compose. Many philosophers today find themselves in the grip of an exceedingly deflationary conception of what it means to be an object. According to this conception, any plurality of objects, no matter how disparate or gerrymandered, itself composes an object, even if the objects in question fail to exhibit interesting similarities, internal unity, cohesion, or causl interaction amongst each other. This commitment to initially counterintuitive objects follows from the belief that no principled set of criteria is available by means of which to distinguish intuitively gerrymandered objects from commonsensical ones; the project of this book is to persuade the reader that systematic principles can be found by means of which composition can be restricted, and hence that we need not embrace this deflationary approach to the question of what it means to be an object. To this end, a more full-blooded neo-Aristotelian account of parthood and composition is developed according to which objects are structured wholes: it is integral to the existence and identity of an object, on this conception, that its parts exhibit a certain manner of arrangement. This structure-based conception of parthood and composition is explored in detail, along with some of its historical precursors as well as some of its contemporary competitors.

The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophical Logic

By Leon Horsten,Richard Pettigrew
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  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Book Code : 1472528298
  • Total of Pages : 656
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 807
  • Pdf File: the-bloomsbury-companion-to-philosophical-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Logical methods are used in all area of philosophy. By introducing and advancing central to topics in the discipline, The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophical Logic emphasizes the crucial role logic plays in understanding philosophical problems. Covering stages in the history of logic and of modern logic, this comprehensive Companion looks ahead to new areas of research and explores issues pertaining to classical logic and its rivals, semantics for parts of natural language, and the application of logic in the theory of rationality. Experts in the field provide a mix of technical chapters that offer excellent encyclopaedias of results in the area and chapters of philosophical discussions that survey a range of philosophical positions. To facilitate further study, this volumes also includes a series of research tools such as a detailed index, an up-to-date list of resources and an annotated bibliography. Balancing technical exposition with philosophical discussion, The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophical Logic not only provides students and lecturers with the basis of a course in philosophical logic, it offers anyone working in this key area of contemporary philosophy a valuable research resource.