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The Sumerians

By Paul Collins
  • ISBN Code: : 178914423X
  • Publisher : Reaktion Books
  • Pages : 208
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 941
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : the-sumerians.pdf

Book Excerpt :

The Sumerians are widely believed to have created the world’s earliest civilization on the fertile floodplains of southern Iraq from about 3500 to 2000 BCE. They have been credited with the invention of nothing less than cities, writing, and the wheel, and therefore hold an ancient mirror to our own urban, literate world. But is this picture correct? Paul Collins reveals how the idea of a Sumerian people was assembled from the archaeological and textual evidence uncovered in Iraq and Syria over the last one hundred fifty years. Reconstructed through the biases of those who unearthed them, the Sumerians were never simply lost and found, but reinvented a number of times, both in antiquity and in the more recent past.

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Book Short Summary:

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  • Pdf File: why-did-ancient-civilizations-fail.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Ideas abound as to why certain complex societies collapsed in the past, including environmental change, subsistence failure, fluctuating social structure and lack of adaptability. Why Did Ancient Civilizations Fail? evaluates the current theories in this important topic and discusses why they offer only partial explanations of the failure of past civilizations. This engaging book offers a new theory of collapse, that of social hubris. Through an examination of Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Roman, Maya, Inca, and Aztec societies, Johnson persuasively argues that hubris blinded many ancient peoples to evidence that would have allowed them to adapt, and he further considers how this has implications for contemporary societies. Comprehensive and well-written, this volume serves as an ideal text for undergraduate courses on ancient complex societies, as well as appealing to the scholar interested in societal collapse.

Lost Race of the Giants

By Patrick Chouinard
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Book Code : 1591438330
  • Total of Pages : 224
  • Category : Body, Mind & Spirit
  • Members : 561
  • Pdf File: lost-race-of-the-giants.pdf

Book Short Summary:

An exploration of mythological and archaeological evidence for prehistoric giants • Examines the many corresponding giant mythologies throughout the world, such as the Greek and Roman titans, Norse frost giants, and the biblical Nephilim • Reveals recent finds of giant skeletons in the deserts of Saudi Arabia and India • Explains how giants passed on their sophisticated culture and civilization to humanity before being wiped out in the great age of cataclysms and floods Giants are a cornerstone of the myths, legends, and traditions of almost every culture on Earth. Stories of giants are often considered fantasies of the ancients or primitive attempts to explain natural phenomena, but archaeological discoveries of 10- and 12-foot skeletons--many of which have been suppressed--confirm the existence of a forgotten golden age of giants before recorded history. Patrick Chouinard examines the staggering number of corresponding giant mythologies throughout the world, such as the Greek and Roman titans, Norse frost giants, the Hindu Daityas, the biblical Nephilim, the Celtic Formorach, the Sumerian Anunnaki, and the multitude of myths in which the sky or world is held aloft on the shoulders of a giant. He links these stories to Atlantis as well as other legends of prehistoric civilizations lost to cataclysm and great floods whose survivors spawned the rise of ancient civilizations. The author reveals how physical remains of giant-size peoples have been found on almost every continent, including recent finds in the deserts of Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, and northern India as well as hundreds of excavations of giant mummies and skeletons across the United States, corresponding directly with Native American accounts of red-haired giants. He also examines reports from famous explorers such as Magellan, Sir Francis Drake, and Desoto of their encounters with giants on the North American continent. Revealing how giants represent the true earthborn race, Chouinard explains how they engaged in open conflict with the extraterrestrial gods who created humanity for forced labor and how they passed their sophisticated culture and civilization on to humanity before being nearly wiped out in the great age of cataclysms.

The Lost Civilization of Lemuria

By Frank Joseph
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Book Code : 1591439493
  • Total of Pages : 360
  • Category : Body, Mind & Spirit
  • Members : 669
  • Pdf File: the-lost-civilization-of-lemuria.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A compelling new portrait of the lost realm of Lemuria, the original motherland of humanity • Contains the most extensive and up-to-date archaeological research on Lemuria • Reveals a lost, ancient technology in some respects more advanced than modern science • Provides evidence that the perennial philosophies have their origin in Lemurian culture Before the Indonesian tsunami or Hurricane Katrina’s destruction of New Orleans, there was the destruction of Lemuria. Oral tradition in Polynesia recounts the story of a splendid kingdom that was carried to the bottom of the sea by a mighty “warrior wave”--a tsunami. This lost realm has been cited in numerous other indigenous traditions, spanning the globe from Australia to Asia to the coasts of both South and North America. It was known as Lemuria or Mu, a vast realm of islands and archipelagoes that once sprawled across the Pacific Ocean. Relying on 10 years of research and extensive travel, Frank Joseph offers a compelling picture of this mother­land of humanity, which he suggests was the original Garden of Eden. Using recent deep-sea archaeological finds, enigmatic glyphs and symbols, and ancient records shared by cultures divided by great distances that document the story of this sunken world, Joseph painstakingly re-creates a picture of this civilization in which people lived in rare harmony and possessed a sophisticated technology that allowed them to harness the weather, defy gravity, and conduct genetic investigations far beyond what is possible today. When disaster struck Lemuria, the survivors made their way to other parts of the world, incorporating their scientific and mystical skills into the existing cultures of Asia, Polynesia, and the Americas. Totem poles of the Pacific Northwest, architecture in China, the colossal stone statues on Easter Island, and even the perennial philosophies all reveal their kinship to this now-vanished civilization.

Ancient Civilizations

By Chris Scarre,Brian Fagan,Charles Golden
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 042968438X
  • Total of Pages : 726
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 640
  • Pdf File: ancient-civilizations.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Ancient Civilizations offers a comprehensive and straightforward account of the world’s first civilizations and how they were discovered, drawing on many avenues of inquiry including archaeological excavations, surveys, laboratory work, highly specialized scientific investigations, and both historical and ethnohistorical records. This book covers the earliest civilizations in Eurasia and the Americas, from Egypt and the Sumerians to the Indus Valley, Shang China, and the Maya. It also addresses subsequent developments in Southwest Asia, moving on to the first Aegean civilizations, Greece and Rome, the first states of sub-Saharan Africa, divine kings and empires in East and Southeast Asia, and the Aztec and Inka empires of Mesoamerica and the Andes. It includes a number of features to support student learning: a wealth of images, including several new illustrations; feature boxes which expand on key sites, finds, and written sources; and an extensive guide to further reading. With new perceptions of the origin and collapse of states, including a review of the issue of sustainability, this fifth edition has been extensively updated in the light of spectacular new discoveries and the latest theoretical advances. Examining the world’s pre-industrial civilizations from a multidisciplinary perspective and offering a comparative analysis of the field which explores the connections between all civilizations around the world, this volume provides a unique introduction to pre-industrial civilizations in all their brilliant diversity. It will prove invaluable to students of Archaeology.

Four Lost Cities: A Secret History of the Urban Age

By Annalee Newitz
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : W. W. Norton & Company
  • Book Code : 039365267X
  • Total of Pages : 320
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 809
  • Pdf File: four-lost-cities.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Named a Best Book of the Year by NPR and Science Friday A quest to explore some of the most spectacular ancient cities in human history—and figure out why people abandoned them. In Four Lost Cities, acclaimed science journalist Annalee Newitz takes readers on an entertaining and mind-bending adventure into the deep history of urban life. Investigating across the centuries and around the world, Newitz explores the rise and fall of four ancient cities, each the center of a sophisticated civilization: the Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük in Central Turkey, the Roman vacation town of Pompeii on Italy’s southern coast, the medieval megacity of Angkor in Cambodia, and the indigenous metropolis Cahokia, which stood beside the Mississippi River where East St. Louis is today. Newitz travels to all four sites and investigates the cutting-edge research in archaeology, revealing the mix of environmental changes and political turmoil that doomed these ancient settlements. Tracing the early development of urban planning, Newitz also introduces us to the often anonymous workers—slaves, women, immigrants, and manual laborers—who built these cities and created monuments that lasted millennia. Four Lost Cities is a journey into the forgotten past, but, foreseeing a future in which the majority of people on Earth will be living in cities, it may also reveal something of our own fate.

Ancient Civilizations of Western Asia and the Mediterranean

By Zachary Anderson
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Cavendish Square Publishing, LLC
  • Book Code : 1502605694
  • Total of Pages : 160
  • Category : Juvenile Nonfiction
  • Members : 266
  • Pdf File: ancient-civilizations-of-western-asia-and-the-mediterranean.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Discover the greatest early civilizations from Western Asia and the Mediterranean, including the Hittites, Minoans, Phoenicians, Assyrians, Israelites, Persians, and early Greeks.

The Dawn of Everything

By David Graeber,David Wengrow
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Signal
  • Book Code : 0771049838
  • Total of Pages : 704
  • Category : History
  • Members : 171
  • Pdf File: the-dawn-of-everything.pdf

Book Short Summary:

NATIONAL BESTSELLER Renowned activist and public intellectual David Graeber teams up with professor of comparative archaeology David Wengrow to deliver a trailblazing account of human history, challenging our most fundamental assumptions about social evolution--from the development of agriculture and cities to the emergence of "the state," political violence, and social inequality--and revealing new possibilities for human emancipation. For generations, our remote ancestors have been cast as primitive and childlike--either free and equal innocents, or thuggish and warlike. Civilization, we are told, could only be achieved by sacrificing those original freedoms, or alternatively, by taming our baser instincts. Graeber and Wengrow show how such theories first emerged in the eighteenth century as a conservative reaction to powerful critiques of European society posed by Indigenous observers and intellectuals. Revisiting this encounter has startling implications for how we make sense of human history today, including the origins of farming, property, cities, democracy, slavery, and civilization itself. Drawing on path-breaking research in archaeology and anthropology, the authors show how history becomes a far more interesting place once we learn to throw off our conceptual shackles and perceive what's really there. If humans did not spend 95% of their evolutionary past in tiny bands of hunter-gatherers, what were they doing all that time? If agriculture, and cities, did not mean a plunge into hierarchy and domination, then what kinds of social and economic organization did they lead to? What was really happening during the periods that we usually describe as the emergence of "the state"? The answers are often unexpected, and suggest that the course of human history may be less set in stone, and more full of playful, hopeful possibilities, than we tend to assume. The Dawn of Everything fundamentally transforms our understanding of the human past and offers a path toward imagining new forms of freedom, new ways of organizing society. This is a monumental book of formidable intellectual range, animated by curiosity, moral vision, and a faith in the power of direct action.

Collapse

By Jared Diamond
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Penguin
  • Book Code : 1101502002
  • Total of Pages : 608
  • Category : History
  • Members : 846
  • Pdf File: collapse.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In Jared Diamond’s follow-up to the Pulitzer-Prize winning Guns, Germs and Steel, the author explores how climate change, the population explosion and political discord create the conditions for the collapse of civilization. Diamond is also the author of Upheaval: Turning Points for Nations in Crisis Environmental damage, climate change, globalization, rapid population growth, and unwise political choices were all factors in the demise of societies around the world, but some found solutions and persisted. As in Guns, Germs, and Steel, Diamond traces the fundamental pattern of catastrophe, and weaves an all-encompassing global thesis through a series of fascinating historical-cultural narratives. Collapse moves from the Polynesian cultures on Easter Island to the flourishing American civilizations of the Anasazi and the Maya and finally to the doomed Viking colony on Greenland. Similar problems face us today and have already brought disaster to Rwanda and Haiti, even as China and Australia are trying to cope in innovative ways. Despite our own society’s apparently inexhaustible wealth and unrivaled political power, ominous warning signs have begun to emerge even in ecologically robust areas like Montana. Brilliant, illuminating, and immensely absorbing, Collapse is destined to take its place as one of the essential books of our time, raising the urgent question: How can our world best avoid committing ecological suicide?

Ancient Civilizations in Haiku

By Fay N. Kozas
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : iUniverse
  • Book Code : 9780595600588
  • Total of Pages : 116
  • Category : Poetry
  • Members : 317
  • Pdf File: ancient-civilizations-in-haiku.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In haiku form, the author cleverly writes about the ancient world, and presents the Greek gods and heroes with candid humor, thus exposing their vulnerability and their "Achilles heel". She goes on to discuss the contributions of the various ancient civilizations and she enhances her writing with history and fact.

Ancient Civilizations of the World

By Denny Rose & Rowan Allen
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Scientific e-Resources
  • Book Code : 1839472758
  • Total of Pages : 372
  • Category :
  • Members : 493
  • Pdf File: ancient-civilizations-of-the-world.pdf

Book Short Summary:

About 5,000 years ago the first urban societies developed laying the foundations for the first civilizations. Nearly all civilizations share the same few features- they have abundant food surpluses, contained cities, political bureaucracies, armies, defined religious and social hierarchies and long distance trading. Ancient Egyptian culture flourished between c. 5500 BCE with the rise of technology (as evidenced in the glass-work of faience) and 30 BCE with the death of Cleopatra VII, the last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt. It is famous today for the great monuments which celebrated the triumphs of the rulers and honored the gods of the land. The culture is often misunderstood as having been obsessed with death but, had this been so, it is unlikely it would have made the significant impression it did on other ancient cultures such as Greece and Rome. Neolithic means "e;new stone"e;, even though agriculture was the crowning achievement of the period. Civilizations started out small. Agriculture at first tended to tie only small groups together. These groups also all settled along rivers, important as a reliable and predictable source of water. As time passed, families usually worked the same plot of land over successive generations, leading to the concept of ownership. Ancient mortars and grinding tools unearthed in a large mound in the Zagros Mountains of Iran reveal that people were grinding wheat and barley about 11,000 years ago. Grass pea, wild wheat, wild barley, and lentils were found throughout the site, including some of the earliest known samples. This was much further east than most sites known for early agriculture. This book furnishes with utmost facility to all classes of readers, the needed information on ancient civilization. The unusual variety of the subject makes this a work of endless fascination.

Atlantis and the Coming Ice Age

By Frank Joseph
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Book Code : 1591437830
  • Total of Pages : 296
  • Category : Body, Mind & Spirit
  • Members : 448
  • Pdf File: atlantis-and-the-coming-ice-age.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Reveals the parallels between the rise and fall of Atlantis, cultures in ancient Mesoamerica, and our modern civilization • Links the demise of Atlantis with the birth of the Olmec civilization in Mexico, the beginning of the first Egyptian dynasty, and the start of the Mayan Calendar • Reveals the Atlantean and Mayan prophecy of an eternal cycle of global creation, destruction, and renewal and how we are headed into a destructive phase • Shows how ancient prophecies correlate precisely with the latest climatology studies, the rising incidence of solar flares, and papers from Pentagon and NASA analysts With the passing of the Mayan Calendar’s end date we can now focus on the true significance of what the Maya and their predecessors were trying to convey to future civilizations. Frank Joseph reveals how the Mayan prophecy, symbolized by their calendar, was created through the combined genius of Atlantis and Lemuria and predicts an eternal cycle of global creation, destruction, and renewal. He shows how this cycle correlates precisely with scientific studies on glacial ice cores and predictions from the Hopi, the Incas, and the Scandinavian Norse as well as the visions of Edgar Cayce. He links the demise of Atlantis with the birth of the Olmec civilization in Mexico (the progenitors of the Maya), the beginning of the first Egyptian dynasty, and the start of the Mayan Calendar. Drawing on the latest climatology studies and papers from Pentagon and NASA analysts, he reveals that we are on the brink of a destructive phase in the global cycle of change as predicted by the Atlanteans and the Maya. The world’s current political, economic, and cultural deterioration is paralleled by unprecedented storms and record temperatures, massive solar flares, tectonic disturbances, and fissuring sea floors that could release dangerous reservoirs of methane gas into the environment--all of which signals we are headed into another ice age. Despite the Atlanteans’ greater understanding of the cyclical nature of catastrophes and of the human role in them, Joseph reveals the mistakes they made that played a crucial role in their civilization’s destruction. By recognizing the self-destructive patterns of Atlantis in our own civilization, we can learn from their mistakes to reestablish civilization’s cosmic balance before time runs out.