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In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts

By Gabor Maté, MD
  • ISBN Code: : 0307371735
  • Publisher : Knopf Canada
  • Pages : 480
  • Category : Self-Help
  • Reads : 925
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : in-the-realm-of-hungry-ghosts.pdf

Book Excerpt :

In this timely and profoundly original new book, bestselling writer and physician Gabor Maté looks at the epidemic of addictions in our society, tells us why we are so prone to them and what is needed to liberate ourselves from their hold on our emotions and behaviours. For over seven years Gabor Maté has been the staff physician at the Portland Hotel, a residence and harm reduction facility in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside. His patients are challenged by life-threatening drug addictions, mental illness, Hepatitis C or HIV and, in many cases, all four. But if Dr. Maté’s patients are at the far end of the spectrum, there are many others among us who are also struggling with addictions. Drugs, alcohol, tobacco, work, food, sex, gambling and excessive inappropriate spending: what is amiss with our lives that we seek such self-destructive ways to comfort ourselves? And why is it so difficult to stop these habits, even as they threaten our health, jeopardize our relationships and corrode our lives? Beginning with a dramatically close view of his drug addicted patients, Dr. Maté looks at his own history of compulsive behaviour. He weaves the stories of real people who have struggled with addiction with the latest research on addiction and the brain. Providing a bold synthesis of clinical experience, insight and cutting edge scientific findings, Dr. Maté sheds light on this most puzzling of human frailties. He proposes a compassionate approach to helping drug addicts and, for the many behaviour addicts among us, to addressing the void addiction is meant to fill. I believe there is one addiction process, whether it manifests in the lethal substance dependencies of my Downtown Eastside patients, the frantic self-soothing of overeaters or shopaholics, the obsessions of gamblers, sexaholics and compulsive internet users, or in the socially acceptable and even admired behaviours of the workaholic. Drug addicts are often dismissed and discounted as unworthy of empathy and respect. In telling their stories my intent is to help their voices to be heard and to shed light on the origins and nature of their ill-fated struggle to overcome suffering through substance use. Both in their flaws and their virtues they share much in common with the society that ostracizes them. If they have chosen a path to nowhere, they still have much to teach the rest of us. In the dark mirror of their lives we can trace outlines of our own. —from In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts

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Book Short Summary:

Close Encounters With Addiction is a lecture Dr. Gabor Maté gave in Los Angeles in April 2011. He talks about his experience as a physician and how many of his patients suffer from mental illness, drug addiction and HIV, or all three.

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  • Pdf File: hungry-ghosts.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Classical stories and depictions of hungry ghosts not only tell us a great deal about Buddhism in the ancient world—they also speak to the modern human condition. The realm of hungry ghosts is one of the unfortunate realms of rebirth in the Buddhist cycle of existence, and those reborn there are said to have led lives consumed by greed and spite. Hungry ghosts are often described as having enormous stomachs and tiny mouths, forever thwarted in their search for food. One of the earliest sources about hungry ghosts is the ten stories about them in the Avadanasataka (One Hundred Stories), a Buddhist scripture from the early centuries of the Common Era, and these ten stories are elegantly translated in this volume. These hungry ghosts know the error of their ways, and they sometimes appear among humans, like the ghosts that haunt Ebenezer Scrooge, as augurs of what may await. Their bodies trigger disgust, but their aim is to inspire in us a disgust with the human thoughts that lead to such wretched bodies. Hungry-ghost stories are meant to shock us out of our complacency. Artistic depictions of the travails of hungry ghosts are found throughout the Buddhist world, and Hungry Ghosts reproduces some of the best examples with detailed descriptions. The volume also begins with a meditation on meanness (matsarya), the mental state that engenders rebirth as a hungry ghost. We discover how the understanding of miserliness, cruelty, and bad faith found in the stories illuminates the human condition, offering insight and inspiring compassion for readers both in ancient times and in the world today.

Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand

By Pabongka
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Book Code : 086171945X
  • Total of Pages : 896
  • Category : Religion
  • Members : 360
  • Pdf File: liberation-in-the-palm-of-your-hand.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Pabongka Rinpoche was one the twentieth century's most charismatic and revered Tibetan lamas, and in Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand we can see why. In this famous twenty-four-day teaching on the lamrim, or stages of the path, Pabongka Rinpoche weaves together lively stories and quotations with frank observations and practical advice to move readers step by step along the journey to buddhahood. When his student Trijang Rinpoche first edited and published these teachings in Tibetan, an instant classic was born. The flavor and immediacy of the original Tibetan are preserved in Michael Richards' fluid and lively translation, which is now substantially revised in this new edition.

Genshin’s Ōjōyōshū and the Construction of Pure Land Discourse in Heian Japan

By Robert F. Rhodes
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : University of Hawaii Press
  • Book Code : 0824872533
  • Total of Pages : 432
  • Category : History
  • Members : 748
  • Pdf File: genshin-s-Ōjōyōshū-and-the-construction-of-pure-land-discourse-in-heian-japan.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Ōjōyōshū, written by the monk Genshin (942–1017), is one of the most important texts in the history of Japanese religions. It is the first comprehensive guide to the doctrine and practice of Pure Land Buddhism written in Japan and so played a pivotal role in establishing this form of Buddhism in the country. In Genshin’s Ōjōyōshū and the Construction of Pure Land Discourse in Heian Japan, the first book in English on the Ōjōyōshū in more than forty years, Robert F. Rhodes draws on the latest scholarship to shed new light on the text, its author, and the tumultuous age in which it was written. Rhodes begins by providing substantial discussion on the development of Pure Land Buddhism before the Ōjōyōshū’s appearance and a thorough account of Genshin’s life, the full details of which have never before been available in English. Japan in the tenth century was marked by far-reaching political, social, and economic change, all of which had a significant effect on religion, including the emergence of numerous new religious movements in Kyoto. Pure Land was the most popular of these, and the faith embraced by the Tendai scholar Genshin when he became disaffected with the growing factionalism at Enrakuji, Tendai’s central temple. A significant portion of Rhodes’ study is a wide-ranging examination of the Ōjōyōshū’s Pure Land teachings in which he describes and analyzes Genshin’s interpretations of Pure Land cosmology and nenbutsu practice. For Genshin the latter encompassed an extensive range of practices for focusing the mind on Amida Buddha—from the simple recitation of Namu Amidabutsu (“recitative nenbutsu”) to the advanced meditative practice of visualizing the buddha (“meditative nenbutsu”). According to the Ōjōyōshū, all of these are effective means for ensuring birth in Amida’s Pure Land. This impressively researched and updated treatment of the formative text in the Japanese Pure Land tradition will be welcomed by all scholars and students of Japanese religions. It also offers a fascinating window into Heian (794–1185) religious life, which will be of interest to anyone concerned with medieval Japan.

The Essence of Zen

By Sekkei Harada,Daigaku Rumme
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Book Code : 0861718445
  • Total of Pages : 176
  • Category : Religion
  • Members : 109
  • Pdf File: the-essence-of-zen.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Essence of Zen is an expert's guided tour of the ins and outs of the tradition's approach to meditation, enlightenment, and the oneness of all things. To read it is to enter into one of modern Japanese Zen's most subtle and sophisticated minds. Sekkei Harada skillfully pushes us to drop those parts of ourselves that grasp and make demands regarding our understanding or progress in meditation practice. He enables us to see clearly-and steer clear of-the philosophical stumbling blocks that can make the path precarious. The Essence of Zen represents the most succinct of his teachings, making it of immediate value to anyone with an interest in Zen. The book also contains Harada's explanations of the differences between the tradition's primary schools, making it particularly helpful to newcomers.

The Rough Patch

By Daphne de Marneffe
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Book Code : 1501118943
  • Total of Pages : 368
  • Category : Family & Relationships
  • Members : 690
  • Pdf File: the-rough-patch.pdf

Book Short Summary:

“Anyone grappling with the bewilderment of midlife…will be at once provoked and comforted by this enormously wise book” (Dani Shapiro, New York Times bestselling author of Hourglass: Time, Memory, Marriage), from a psychologist who has worked for decades with people struggling to preserve and enhance their marriages and long-term relationships. People today are trying to make their marriages work over longer lives than ever before. But staying married isn’t always easy. In the brilliant, transformative, and optimistic The Rough Patch, clinical psychologist Daphne de Marneffe explores the extraordinary pushes and pulls of midlife marriage, where our need to develop as individuals can crash headlong into the demands of our relationships. “A book of good intentions and helpful advice and a worthy manual for spouses” (Kirkus Reviews), The Rough Patch addresses common problems: money, alcohol and drugs, the stresses of parenthood, sex, extramarital affairs, lovesickness, health, aging, children leaving home, and dealing with elderly parents. Then, de Marneffe offers seasoned wisdom on these difficulties, explaining the psychological, emotional, and relational capacities we must cultivate to overcome them as individuals and as couples. Blending research, interviews, and clinical experience, de Marneffe dives deep into the workings of love and the structures of relationships. Intimate and always illuminating, The Rough Patch is an essential, compassionate resource for people trying to understand “where they are” on the continuum of marriage, giving them a chance to share in other people’s stories and struggles. “De Marneffe writes with poetry, wit, and compassion about the necessity of struggle in the quest for true love. Anyone in any relationship at any stage of life could stand to learn from the wisdom in these pages” (Andrew Solomon, National Book Award-winning author of Far from the Tree).

The Collected Works of Chogyam Trungpa: Volume Six

By Chogyam Trungpa
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Shambhala Publications
  • Book Code : 9780834821552
  • Total of Pages : 640
  • Category : Religion
  • Members : 219
  • Pdf File: the-collected-works-of-chogyam-trungpa.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Collected Works of Chögyam Trungpa brings together in eight volumes the writings of one of the first and most influential and inspirational Tibetan teachers to present Buddhism in the West. Organized by theme, the collection includes full-length books as well as articles, seminar transcripts, poems, plays, and interviews, many of which have never before been available in book form. From memoirs of his escape from Chinese-occupied Tibet to insightful discussions of psychology, mind, and meditation; from original verse and calligraphy to the esoteric lore of tantric Buddhism—the impressive range of Trungpa's vision, talents, and teachings is showcased in this landmark series. Volume Six contains advanced teachings on the nature of mind and tantric experiences. Chögyam Trungpa's commentary on the Tibetan Book of the Dead explains what this classic text teaches about human psychology. Transcending Madness presents a unique view of the Tibetan concept of bardo. Orderly Chaos explains the inner meaning of the mandala. Secret Beyond Thought presents teachings on the five chakras and the four karmas. Glimpses of Space consists of two seminars: "The Feminine Principle" and "Evam." In the article "Femininity," the author presents a playful look at the role of feminine energy in Buddhist teachings. "The Bardo," based on teachings given in England in the 1960s, has not been available in published form for many years.

The Life of Dedication (Book one)

By 张戬坤
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : 光大出版社
  • Book Code : 9881998700
  • Total of Pages : 408
  • Category : Architecture
  • Members : 442
  • Pdf File: the-life-of-dedication.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Foreword Words for the Second Edition Get to Know the Life of Dedication ---Extracts from Talks at the Symposium in Xinjiang Extracts of the Talks at the Symposium on Returning to Naturalness Mental and Physical Health and Returning to Naturalness ---Excerpts from the talks at the symposium in Urumqi An Extract of the Talk in the Symposium of Xinjiang Human Body Science Society Returning to Naturalness and the Perfection of Personality ---Extracts from Talks in the Symposium Held by Retired Cadres Talks in the Symposium on Returning to Naturalness (Extracts) Operations to Purify the Mind ---Extracts from the speech at a symposium in Wujiaqu, Xinjiang The Life of Dedication and Returning to Naturalness ---Extracts from talks in the symposium at Wujiaqu in Xinjiang Self-perfection in Cultivation and Tempering --- Extracts from the Talks made in Urumqi, Xinjiang The Inspiration of the mind ---By Dong Zhongrui, a retired cadre in Urumqi The Light of Jiaolong Culture Shines in the Universe ---By Dong Zhongru Ode to Lingshan Mountain The Three Operative Procedures on the Transformation of Different States and Levels By Shi Tiantang Shakyamuni Buddha’s Life of Dedication Lao Zi’s Life of Dedication The Life of Dedication(I) The Life of Dedication (II) The Life of Dedication and the Purification of the Mind Establish a Dedicational Life and Cultivate Upright Energy Purify the Mind, Perfect the Personality, Develop the wisdom and Sublimate the state ---A Talk at the First Session of the Fifth Symposium on Jiaolong Culture and traditional Culture Cultivate the Mind and Nourish the Nature by Living a Dedicational life Strive to Do Profitless Work and Be Willing to Take a Loss Build up the lofty aspiration for a dedicational Life The Purification and Dedication of a human Life A Blood Donator’s Dedicational Life Have a mindset of Selfless Dedication Dedication--- A Necessary Step to Upgrade the Mind and Personality Be willing to Do Profitless Work and Take a Loss

The Wisdom of the Buddhist Masters

By Robert Sachs
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Watkins Media Limited
  • Book Code : 1780283660
  • Total of Pages : 256
  • Category : Religion
  • Members : 498
  • Pdf File: the-wisdom-of-the-buddhist-masters.pdf

Book Short Summary:

What does Buddhism have to say about sickness, poverty, and warfare—or social and political action? Would the wisest, most renowned Buddhist teachers go on the record and reveal their thoughts and perspectives on a wide array of contemporary issues? Robert Sachs decided to find out: he created a questionnaire, brought it to some of the most esteemed Buddhist masters, and interviewed them. Their comments and conclusions are inspirational…and often surprising. Here are the observations of deeply spiritual thinkers on the global problems that confront us today, from the conflict in the Middle East to global warming. These are people who are steeped in meditation, widely traveled, and have seen human misery and warfare with their own eyes. They offer empowering words of wisdom and show us how we can become part of the impetus for change and make a real difference. Most important, these teachers go beyond religious platitudes, and refuse to shy away from politically incorrect conclusions or ideas contrary to the pacifism so often associated with Buddhism. Includes a foreword by His Holiness, The Dalai Lama, taken from his Nobel Peace Prize Speech. The Buddhist Masters interviewed are: H.H. Kunzig Shamar Rinpoche, Ven. Tarthang Tulku Rinpoche, Geshe Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche, Geshe Michael Roach, Ajahn Amaro, Roshi Joan Halifax, Ven. Thubten Chodron, Christopher Titmuss, Tenzin Robert Thurman.

Repentance Ritual of the Emperor of Liang

By Buddhist Text Translation Society
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Buddhist Text Translation Society
  • Book Code : 160103086X
  • Total of Pages :
  • Category : Religion
  • Members : 500
  • Pdf File: repentance-ritual-of-the-emperor-of-liang.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In China Buddhism flourished during the Liang Dyansty (502–587) due in large part to Emperor Wu, who personally met with Bodhidharma, the 28th Indian patriarch from Shakyamuni Buddha. Legend has it that Emperor Wu’s first wife died prematurely and fell into the lower realms. In order to rescue her and to help her spirit ascend to the heavens, Emperor Wu, a great patron of Buddhism, had Chan Master Baozhi compose a repentance ceremony on her behalf. The resulting repentance text was so successful and popular that it is still used in monasteries today. Repentance Dharma of Kindness and Compassion in the Bodhimanda is a complete English translation of what is popularly known as “The Jeweled Repentance of the Emperor of Liang.” It was translated over a period of 15 years by the monks, nuns and laity of the Buddhist Text Translation Society (BTTS). BTTS was founded in 1970 in San Francisco by Tripitaka Master Hsuan Hua as part of the Dharma Realm Buddhist Association. BTTS publishes sutra translations, instructional handbooks, biographies, children’s books, and introductory material on Buddhism.

The Wheel of Life

By Dalai Lama
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Book Code : 1614293376
  • Total of Pages : 160
  • Category : Religion
  • Members : 719
  • Pdf File: the-wheel-of-life.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Using the traditional Buddhist allegorical image of the Wheel of Life and the teaching of the twelve links of dependent origination, the Dalai Lama deftly illustrates how our existence, though fleeting and often full of woes, brims with the potential for peace and happiness. We can realize that potential by cultivating a wise appreciation of the interdependency of actions and experience, and by living a kind and compassionate life. A life thus lived, the Dalai Lama teaches, becomes thoroughly meaningful for both oneself and for others. This book was originally published under the title The Meaning of Life.

The Tibetan Book of the Dead

By Padmasambhava,Karma Lingpa
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : North Atlantic Books
  • Book Code : 1583945733
  • Total of Pages : 320
  • Category : Religion
  • Members : 873
  • Pdf File: the-tibetan-book-of-the-dead.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Tibetan Book of the Dead: Awakening Upon Dying, with introductory commentary by Dzogchen Buddhist master Chögyal Namkhai Norbu, is a new translation of the ancient text also known as The Great Liberation through Hearing in the Intermediate State. Both a practical guide and intriguing historical, cultural, and spiritual document, this new version incorporates recent discoveries that have allowed for a better translation of previously ambiguous passages. Revealing a set of instructions designed to facilitate the inner liberation of the dead or dying person, the book provides a guide to navigating the bardo--the interval between death and rebirth. Originally composed by Padmasambhava, an important Indian master of the eighth century, the Tibetan Book of the Dead was concealed in Tibet until it was discovered in the fourteenth century by Karma Lingpa, a famous Tibetan tertön (discoverer of ancient texts). Describing in detail the characteristics and fantastic visions of each stage beyond death, the book includes invocations to be read aloud to the dying person, to help his or her successful journey toward the stage of liberation. Chögyal Namkhai Norbu's introduction clarifies the texts from the Dzogchen point of view and provides a scholarly summary of the ancient material based on his oral teachings and written works. In addition, material from several of Namkhai Norbu's more recent written works and oral teachers have been added, including an essay on the four intermediate states after death entitled Birth, Life, and Death. A full-color 16-page insert of traditional Tibetan art highlights Tibet's unique aesthetic wisdom. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Explaining Pictures

By Ikumi Kaminishi
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : University of Hawaii Press
  • Book Code : 0824844491
  • Total of Pages : 256
  • Category : Art
  • Members : 773
  • Pdf File: explaining-pictures.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Early Japanese Buddhism was patronized by the literate classes and remained a prerogative of the elite until the end of the twelfth century. With the fiscal and political decline of its aristocratic patrons, the Buddhist establishment turned increasingly to lay commoners for financial support, using paintings to accommodate its new, and often subliterate, audiences. One type of preaching, known as etoki (pictorial decipherment), helped bridge the worlds of esoteric Buddhism and lay practice and reveals much about the role of art in the context of didactic storytelling and proselytization. Beginning with the provocative claim that the popularization of Buddhism in the medieval period was a phenomenon of visual culture, Explaining Pictures reexamines the history (and historiography) of medieval Japanese Buddhism. With theoretical sophistication and a full appreciation of the power of imagery to convey and control religious meaning, it investigates a range of aspects of etoki, including the particularly active role of itinerant nuns, whose performances were especially edifying to female audiences, as well as the visual hagiography of the reputed founder of Japanese Buddhism, the pictorial projections of Buddhist paradise and hell, and the explanation, through visual imagery, of sacred mountains. Part One presents the social history of etoki as it appears in a broad variety of written sources from the tenth to fifteenth centuries and investigates how etoki helped establish the cult of Shotôku Taishi. Part Two covers the period between the late twelfth and fourteenth centuries with a focus on Pure Land Buddhist propaganda and its use in etoki practice. Etoki sermons on the Taima Mandala, the visual description of the Pure Land Buddhist canons, show how envisioning the land of bliss substitutes for meditative concentration to gain enlightenment. Ikumi Kaminishi next turns to the itinerant etoki proselytes and similar performing artists between the fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries. These individuals preached on the road and through their missionary work reached out to commoners, turning etoki into an effective method of imparting religious beliefs and soliciting alms. In the late medieval period, audiences regarded itinerant preachers much like traveling artists and vendors, which has led modern scholars to conclude that etoki priests desecrated religious rituals. Kaminishi reconsiders this historiographical problem in relation to the social meaning of itinerant performing artists of the period. Finally, the she examines etoki’s effect on the popularization of sacred mountain worship (in particular Kumano and Tateyama)during the seventeen through nineteenth centuries. Chapters focus on the Kumano propaganda image used by nuns, how Christian religious imagery was exploited in seventeenth-century Buddhist propaganda, and the ways in which etoki campaigns made the remote Tateyama a popular pilgrimage site in early modern times. Explaining Pictures is an important groundbreaking work, the first book-length study devoted to the phenomenon of Buddhist art as religious propaganda and pictorial storytelling as a form of popular culture in medieval Japan. A truly interdisciplinary study, it suggests fruitful avenues of discussion between art historians and historians of Japanese Buddhism. Scholars and students with an interest in Japanese Buddhism, art, and social and cultural history will find its examination of significant issues fresh and stimulating. It will also find an appreciative audience among those concerned with the relationship between art and religion, the mechanics of proselytization, and Asian visual culture.

The Essence of Nectar

By Yeshe Tsöndru
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Library of Tibetan Works and Archives
  • Book Code : 8185102023
  • Total of Pages : 112
  • Category : Religion
  • Members : 949
  • Pdf File: the-essence-of-nectar.pdf

Book Short Summary:

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The Seven Tengu Scrolls

By Haruko Wakabayashi
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : University of Hawaii Press
  • Book Code : 0824861140
  • Total of Pages : 224
  • Category : History
  • Members : 200
  • Pdf File: the-seven-tengu-scrolls.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This is a study of visual and textual images of the mythical creature tengu from the late Heian (897–1185) to the late Kamakura (1185–1333) periods. Popularly depicted as half-bird, half-human creatures with beaks or long noses, wings, and human bodies, tengu today are commonly seen as guardian spirits associated with the mountain ascetics known as yamabushi. In the medieval period, however, the character of tengu most often had a darker, more malevolent aspect. Haruko Wakabashi focuses in this study particularly on tengu as manifestations of the Buddhist concept of Māra (or ma), the personification of evil in the form of the passions and desires that are obstacles to enlightenment. Her larger aim is to investigate the use of evil in the rhetoric of Buddhist institutions of medieval Japan. Through a close examination of tengu that appear in various forms and contexts, Wakabayashi considers the functions of a discourse on evil as defined by the Buddhist clergy to justify their position and marginalize others. Early chapters discuss Buddhist appropriations of tengu during the late twelfth and thirteenth centuries in relation to the concept of ma. Multiple interpretations of ma developed in response to changes in society and challenges to the Buddhist community, which recruited tengu in its efforts to legitimize its institutions. The highlight of the work discusses in detail the thirteenth-century narrative scroll Tengu zōshi (also known as the Shichi Tengu-e, or the Seven Tengu Scrolls), in which monks from prominent temples in Nara and Kyoto and leaders of “new” Buddhist sects (Pure Land and Zen) are depicted as tengu. Through a close analysis of the Tengu zōshi’s pictures and text, the author reveals one aspect of the critique against Kamakura Buddhism and how tengu images were used to express this in the late thirteenth century. She concludes with a reexamination of the meaning of tengu and a discussion of how ma was essentially socially constructed not only to explain the problems that plague this world, but also to justify the existence of an institution that depended on the presence of evil for its survival. Drawing on a wide range of primary sources, Wakabayashi provides a thoughtful and innovative analysis of history and religion through art. The Seven Tengu Scrolls will therefore appeal to those with an interest in Japanese art, history, and religion, as well as in interdisciplinary approaches to socio-cultural history.