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Evaluating Research Efficiency in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy,Committee on Evaluating the Efficiency of Research and Development Programs at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • ISBN Code: : 0309178193
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Pages : 152
  • Category : Political Science
  • Reads : 340
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : evaluating-research-efficiency-in-the-u-s-environmental-protection-agency.pdf

Book Excerpt :

A new book from the National Research Council recommends changes in how the federal government evaluates the efficiency of research at EPA and other agencies. Assessing efficiency should be considered only one part of gauging a program's quality, relevance, and effectiveness. The efficiency of research processes and that of investments should be evaluated using different approaches. Investment efficiency should examine whether an agency's R&D portfolio, including the budget, is relevant, of high quality, matches the agency's strategic plan. These evaluations require panels of experts. In contrast, process efficiency should focus on "inputs" (the people, funds, and facilities dedicated to research) and "outputs" (the services, grants, publications, monitoring, and new techniques produced by research), as well as their timelines and should be evaluated using quantitative measures. The committee recommends that the efficiency of EPA's research programs be evaluated according to the same standards used at other agencies. To ensure this, OMB should train and oversee its budget examiners so that the PART questionnaire is implemented consistently and equitably across agencies.

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Read Also This Books

A Review of the Environmental Protection Agency's Science to Achieve Results Research Program

By National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on the Review of Environmental Protection Agency's Science to Achieve Results Research Grants Program
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 0309458609
  • Total of Pages : 114
  • Category : Political Science
  • Members : 361
  • Pdf File: a-review-of-the-environmental-protection-agency-s-science-to-achieve-results-research-program.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Environmental research has driven landmark improvements that led to the protection of human and ecosystem health. Recognizing the value of knowledge generated by environmental research and the ingenuity within academic and nonprofit institutions, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created a program known as Science to Achieve Results, or STAR, in 1995. STAR is EPA's primary competitive extramural grants program. A Review of the Environmental Protection Agency's Science to Achieve Results Research Program assesses the program's scientific merit, public benefits, and overall contributions in the context of other relevant research and recommends ways to enhance those aspects of the program. This report also considers the conclusions and recommendations of a prior National Research Council review of the STAR program (2003), the STAR program's research priorities in light of the nation's environmental challenges, and the effects of recent STAR funding trends on obtaining scientific information needed to protect public health and the environment.

Research Progress on Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials

By National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Materials and Manufacturing Board,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee to Develop a Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 0309291895
  • Total of Pages : 162
  • Category : Technology & Engineering
  • Members : 454
  • Pdf File: research-progress-on-environmental-health-and-safety-aspects-of-engineered-nanomaterials.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Despite the increase in funding for research and the rising numbers of peer-reviewed publications over the past decade that address the environmental, health, and safety aspects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), uncertainty about the implications of potential exposures of consumers, workers, and ecosystems to these materials persists. Consumers and workers want to know which of these materials they are exposed to and whether the materials can harm them. Industry is concerned about being able to predict with sufficient certainty whether products that it makes and markets will pose any environmental, health or safety issues and what measures should be taken regarding manufacturing practices and worldwide distribution to minimize any potential risk. However, there remains a disconnect between the research that is being carried out and its relevance to and use by decision-makers and regulators to make informed public health and environmental policy and regulatory decisions. Research Progress on Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Nanomaterials evaluates research progress and updates research priorities and resource estimates on the basis of results of studies and emerging trends in the nanotechnology industry. This report follows up the 2012 report A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials, which presented a strategic approach for developing the science and research infrastructure needed to address uncertainties regarding the potential environmental, health, and safety risks posed by ENMs. This new report looks at the state of nanotechnology research, examines market and regulatory conditions and their affect on research priorities, and considers the criteria for evaluating research progress on the environmental, health, and safety aspects of nanotechnology.

Combined Exposures to Hydrogen Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide in Army Operations

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Toxicology,Committee on Combined Exposures to Hydrogen Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide in Army Operations
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 9780309178747
  • Total of Pages : 50
  • Category : Medical
  • Members : 790
  • Pdf File: combined-exposures-to-hydrogen-cyanide-and-carbon-monoxide-in-army-operations.pdf

Book Short Summary:

To determine whether the air quality inside armored-vehicle cabins can meet exposure guidelines under deployment conditions, the Army assessed possible synergistic toxic effects from potentially harmful substances. This book, the final of two reports on the subject from the National Research Council, addresses whether the approach discussed in the technical context section of the Army's proposed guidance is appropriate, or whether an alternative assessment method should be developed. Combined Exposures to Hydrogen Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide in Army Operations provides several conclusions and recommendations, including the use of alternative instrumentation for monitoring gas, conducting experiments on human subjects, and seeking advice from additional groups involved with personnel training and field deployment.

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals

By National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Toxicology,Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 0309449189
  • Total of Pages : 194
  • Category : Nature
  • Members : 613
  • Pdf File: acute-exposure-guideline-levels-for-selected-airborne-chemicals.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Extremely hazardous substances can be released accidentally as a result of chemical spills, industrial explosions, fires, or accidents involving railroad cars and trucks transporting EHSs. Workers and residents in communities surrounding industrial facilities where these substances are manufactured, used, or stored and in communities along the nation's railways and highways are potentially at risk of being exposed to airborne EHSs during accidental releases or intentional releases by terrorists. Pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified approximately 400 EHSs on the basis of acute lethality data in rodents. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, Volume 20 reviews and updates the technical support document on acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for selected chloroformates. This update focuses on establishing AEGL-3 values for n-propyl chloroformate and isopropyl chloroformate, but will also consider whether any new data are available that would affect the proposed values for the other 10 chloroformates. AEGLs represent threshold exposure limits (exposure levels below which adverse health effects are not likely to occur) for the general public and are applicable to emergency exposures ranging from 10 minutes (min) to 8 h. Three levels - AEGL-1, AEGL-2, and AEGL-3 - are developed for each of five exposure periods (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 4 h, and 8 h) and are distinguished by varying degrees of severity of toxic effects. This report will inform planning, response, and prevention in the community, the workplace, transportation, the military, and the remediation of Superfund sites.

A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials

By National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials and Manufacturing Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee to Develop a Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 0309253314
  • Total of Pages : 230
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 379
  • Pdf File: a-research-strategy-for-environmental-health-and-safety-aspects-of-engineered-nanomaterials.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The nanotechnology sector, which generated about $225 billion in product sales in 2009, is predicted to expand rapidly over the next decade with the development of new technologies that have new capabilities. The increasing production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) may lead to greater exposures of workers, consumers, and the environment, and the unique scale-specific and novel properties of the materials raise questions about their potential effects on human health and the environment. Over the last decade, government agencies, academic institutions, industry, and others have conducted many assessments of the environmental, health, and safety (EHS) aspects of nanotechnology. The results of those efforts have helped to direct research on the EHS aspects of ENMs. However, despite the progress in assessing research needs and despite the research that has been funded and conducted, developers, regulators, and consumers of nanotechnology-enabled products remain uncertain about the types and quantities of nanomaterials in commerce or in development, their possible applications, and their associated risks. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials presents a strategic approach for developing the science and research infrastructure needed to address uncertainties regarding the potential EHS risks of ENMs. The report summarizes the current state of the science and high-priority data gaps on the potential EHS risks posed by ENMs and describes the fundamental tools and approaches needed to pursue an EHS risk research strategy. The report also presents a proposed research agenda, short-term and long-term research priorities, and estimates of needed resources and concludes by focusing on implementation of the research strategy and evaluation of its progress, elements that the committee considered integral to its charge.

Assessing Risks to Endangered and Threatened Species from Pesticides

By Committee on Ecological Risk Assessment Under FIFRA and ESA,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 0309285844
  • Total of Pages : 175
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 425
  • Pdf File: assessing-risks-to-endangered-and-threatened-species-from-pesticides.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) are responsible for protecting species that are listed as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and for protecting habitats that are critical for their survival. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for registering or reregistering pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and must ensure that pesticide use does not cause any unreasonable adverse effects on the environment, which is interpreted to include listed species and their critical habitats. The agencies have developed their own approaches to evaluating environmental risk, and their approaches differ because their legal mandates, responsibilities, institutional cultures, and expertise differ. Over the years, the agencies have tried to resolve their differences but have been unsuccessful in reaching a consensus regarding their assessment approaches. As a result, FWS, NMFS, EPA, and the US Department of Agriculture asked the National Research Council (NRC) to examine scientific and technical issues related to determining risks posed to listed species by pesticides. Specifically, the NRC was asked to evaluate methods for identifying the best scientific data available; to evaluate approaches for developing modeling assumptions; to identify authoritative geospatial information that might be used in risk assessments; to review approaches for characterizing sublethal, indirect, and cumulative effects; to assess the scientific information available for estimating effects of mixtures and inert ingredients; and to consider the use of uncertainty factors to account for gaps in data. Assessing Risks to Endangered and Threatened Species from Pesticides, which was prepared by the NRC Committee on Ecological Risk Assessment under FIFRA and ESA, is the response to that request.

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Toxicology,Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 0309291259
  • Total of Pages : 294
  • Category : Nature
  • Members : 943
  • Pdf File: acute-exposure-guideline-levels-for-selected-airborne-chemicals.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, Volume 15 identifies, reviews, and interprets relevant toxicologic and other scientific data for ethyl mercaptan, methyl mercaptan, phenyl mercaptan, tert-octyl mercaptan, lewisite, methyl isothiocyanate, and selected monoisocyanates in order to develop acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for these high-priority, acutely toxic chemicals. AEGLs represent threshold exposure limits (exposure levels below which adverse health effects are not likely to occur) for the general public and are applicable to emergency exposures ranging from 10 minutes (min) to 8 h. Three level-AEGL-1, AEGL-2, and AEGL-3-are developed for each of five exposure periods (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 4 h, and 8 h) and are distinguished by varying degrees of severity of toxic effects. This report will inform planning, response, and prevention in the community, the workplace, transportation, the military, and the remediation of Superfund sites.

Refinements to the Methods for Developing Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines

By National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 0309390818
  • Total of Pages : 64
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 781
  • Pdf File: refinements-to-the-methods-for-developing-spacecraft-exposure-guidelines.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Human spaceflight is inherently risky, with numerous potential hazards posed at each phase of a mission. Potential health risks during spaceflights include short-term health consequences from being in microgravity, as well as long-term health consequences that arise, or continue, months or years after a flight. Additional health considerations are risks posed by exposure to environmental contaminants onboard spacecraft. Because the International Space Station and spacecraft are closed environments that require recirculation of air and water supplies, some contamination of the air and water will occur. Even with onboard air and water purification systems, chemicals will accumulate in the air and water as they recirculate or are recycled onboard. Therefore, it is necessary for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to identify hazardous contaminants and determine exposure levels that are not expected to pose a health risk to astronauts. NASA uses spacecraft maximum allowance concentrations (SMACs) and spacecraft water exposure guidelines (SWEGs) to provide guidance on acceptable exposures to air and water contaminants during normal operations and emergency situations. Refinements to the Methods for Developing Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines updates the methods for establishing SMACs and SWEGs and assists NASA with identifying chemicals that need updated SMACs or SWEGs and new chemicals for which these guidelines should be developed.

Hidden Costs of Energy

By National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Health, Environmental, and Other External Costs and Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 9780309155809
  • Total of Pages : 506
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 469
  • Pdf File: hidden-costs-of-energy.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Despite the many benefits of energy, most of which are reflected in energy market prices, the production, distribution, and use of energy causes negative effects. Many of these negative effects are not reflected in energy market prices. When market failures like this occur, there may be a case for government interventions in the form of regulations, taxes, fees, tradable permits, or other instruments that will motivate recognition of these external or hidden costs. The Hidden Costs of Energy defines and evaluates key external costs and benefits that are associated with the production, distribution, and use of energy, but are not reflected in market prices. The damage estimates presented are substantial and reflect damages from air pollution associated with electricity generation, motor vehicle transportation, and heat generation. The book also considers other effects not quantified in dollar amounts, such as damages from climate change, effects of some air pollutants such as mercury, and risks to national security. While not a comprehensive guide to policy, this analysis indicates that major initiatives to further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity generating mix could substantially reduce the damages of external effects. A first step in minimizing the adverse consequences of new energy technologies is to better understand these external effects and damages. The Hidden Costs of Energy will therefore be a vital informational tool for government policy makers, scientists, and economists in even the earliest stages of research and development on energy technologies.

Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Toxicology,Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 9780309177955
  • Total of Pages : 206
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 340
  • Pdf File: spacecraft-water-exposure-guidelines-for-selected-contaminants.pdf

Book Short Summary:

NASA maintains an active interest in the environmental conditions associated with living and working in spacecraft and identifying hazards that might adversely affect the health and well-being of crew members. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the spacecraft environment, some water and air contamination is inevitable. Several hundred chemical species are likely to be found in the closed environment of the spacecraft, and as the frequency, complexity, and duration of human space flight increase, identifying and understanding significant health hazards will become more complicated and more critical for the success of the missions. To protect space crews from contaminants in potable and hygiene water, NASA requested that the National Research Council NRC provide guidance on how to develop water exposure guidelines and subsequently review NASA's development of the exposure guidelines for specific chemicals. This book presents spacecraft water exposure guidelines (SWEGs) for antimony, benzene, ethylene glycol, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, and propylene glycol.

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Toxicology,Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 9780309177672
  • Total of Pages : 406
  • Category : Technology & Engineering
  • Members : 944
  • Pdf File: spacecraft-maximum-allowable-concentrations-for-selected-airborne-contaminants.pdf

Book Short Summary:

NASA is aware of the potential toxicologic hazards to crew that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for contaminants and to review SMACs for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the committee. This book is the fifth volume in the series Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, and presents SMACs for acrolein, C3 to C8 aliphatic saturated aldehydes, C2 to C9 alkanes, ammonia, benzene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, 1,2-dichloroethane, dimethylhydrazine, ethanol, formaldehyde, limonene, methanol, methylene dichloride, n-butanol, propylene glycol, toluene, trimethylsilanol, and xylenes.

Managing Health Effects of Beryllium Exposure

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Toxicology,Committee on Beryllium Alloy Exposures
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 9780309178013
  • Total of Pages : 186
  • Category : Medical
  • Members : 693
  • Pdf File: managing-health-effects-of-beryllium-exposure.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Beryllium is a lightweight metal that is used for its exceptional strength and high heat-absorbing capability. Beryllium and its alloys can be found in many important technologies in the defense and aeronautics industries, such as nuclear devices, satellite systems, radar systems, and aircraft bushings and bearings. Pulmonary disease associated with exposure to beryllium has been recognized and studied since the early 1940s, and an occupational guideline for limiting exposure to beryllium has been in place since 1949. Over the last few decades, much has been learned about chronic beryllium disease and factors that contribute to its occurrence in exposed people. Despite reduced workplace exposure, chronic beryllium disease continues to occur. Those developments have led to debates about the adequacy of the long-standing occupational exposure limit for protecting worker health. This book, requested by the U.S. Air Force to help to determine the steps necessary to protect its workforce from the effects of beryllium used in military aerospace applications, reviews the scientific literature on beryllium and outlines an exposure and disease management program for its protecting workers.

Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on the Health Risks of Phthalates
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 030917791X
  • Total of Pages : 208
  • Category : Nature
  • Members : 448
  • Pdf File: phthalates-and-cumulative-risk-assessment.pdf

Book Short Summary:

People are exposed to a variety of chemicals throughout their daily lives. To protect public health, regulators use risk assessments to examine the effects of chemical exposures. This book provides guidance for assessing the risk of phthalates, chemicals found in many consumer products that have been shown to affect the development of the male reproductive system of laboratory animals. Because people are exposed to multiple phthalates and other chemicals that affect male reproductive development, a cumulative risk assessment should be conducted that evaluates the combined effects of exposure to all these chemicals. The book suggests an approach for cumulative risk assessment that can serve as a model for evaluating the health risks of other types of chemicals.

Assessing the Benefits of Public Research within an Economic Framework: The Case of USDA’s Agricultural Research Service

By
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
  • Book Code : 1437933246
  • Total of Pages :
  • Category :
  • Members : 625
  • Pdf File: assessing-the-benefits-of-public-research-within-an-economic-framework.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Read and download full book Assessing the Benefits of Public Research within an Economic Framework: The Case of USDA’s Agricultural Research Service

Review of EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Process

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee to Review the IRIS Process
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 0309304172
  • Total of Pages : 170
  • Category : Political Science
  • Members : 603
  • Pdf File: review-of-epa-s-integrated-risk-information-system.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a program within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that is responsible for developing toxicologic assessments of environmental contaminants. An IRIS assessment contains hazard identifications and dose-response assessments of various chemicals related to cancer and noncancer outcomes. Although the program was created to increase consistency among toxicologic assessments within the agency, federal, state, and international agencies and other organizations have come to rely on IRIS assessments for setting regulatory standards, establishing exposure guidelines, and estimating risks to exposed populations. Over the last decade, the National Research Council (NRC) has been asked to review some of the more complex and challenging IRIS assessments, including those of formaldehyde, dioxin, and tetrachloroethylene. In 2011, an NRC committee released its review of the IRIS formaldehyde assessment. Like other NRC committees that had reviewed IRIS assessments, the formaldehyde committee identified deficiencies in the specific assessment and more broadly in some of EPA's general approaches and specific methods. Although the committee focused on evaluating the IRIS formaldehyde assessment, it provided suggestions for improving the IRIS process and a roadmap for its revision in case EPA decided to move forward with changes to the process. Congress directed EPA to implement the report's recommendations and then asked the National Research Council to review the changes that EPA was making (or proposing to make) in response to the recommendations. Review of EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Process provides an overview of some general issues associated with IRIS assessments. This report then addresses evidence identification and evaluation for IRIS assessments and discusses evidence integration for hazard evaluation and methods for calculating reference values and unit risks. The report makes recommendations and considerations for future directions. Overall, Review of EPA's Integrated Risk Information System Process finds that substantial improvements in the IRIS process have been made, and it is clear that EPA has embraced and is acting on the recommendations in the NRC formaldehyde report. The recommendations of this report should be seen as building on the progress that EPA has already made.

Toxicity-Pathway-Based Risk Assessment

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Standing Committee on Risk Analysis Issues and Reviews
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 9780309156929
  • Total of Pages : 134
  • Category : Nature
  • Members : 553
  • Pdf File: toxicity-pathway-based-risk-assessment.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In 2007, the National Research Council envisioned a new paradigm in which biologically important perturbations in key toxicity pathways would be evaluated with new methods in molecular biology, bioinformatics, computational toxicology, and a comprehensive array of in vitro tests based primarily on human biology. Although some considered the vision too optimistic with respect to the promise of the new science, no one can deny that a revolution in toxicity testing is under way. New approaches are being developed, and data are being generated. As a result, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) expects a large influx of data that will need to be evaluated. EPA also is faced with tens of thousands of chemicals on which toxicity information is incomplete and emerging chemicals and substances that will need risk assessment and possible regulation. Therefore, the agency asked the National Research Council to convene a symposium to stimulate discussion on the application of the new approaches and data in risk assessment. The symposium was held on May 11-13, 2009, in Washington, DC, and included presentations and discussion sessions on pathway-based approaches for hazard identification, applications of new approaches to mode-of-action analyses, the challenges to and opportunities for risk assessment in the changing paradigm, and future directions.

Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction Benefits from Decreasing Tropospheric Ozone Exposure
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 0309177855
  • Total of Pages : 226
  • Category : Nature
  • Members : 289
  • Pdf File: estimating-mortality-risk-reduction-and-economic-benefits-from-controlling-ozone-air-pollution.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In light of recent evidence on the relationship of ozone to mortality and questions about its implications for benefit analysis, the Environmental Protection Agency asked the National Research Council to establish a committee of experts to evaluate independently the contributions of recent epidemiologic studies to understanding the size of the ozone-mortality effect in the context of benefit analysis. The committee was also asked to assess methods for estimating how much a reduction in short-term exposure to ozone would reduce premature deaths, to assess methods for estimating associated increases in life expectancy, and to assess methods for estimating the monetary value of the reduced risk of premature death and increased life expectancy in the context of health-benefits analysis. Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution details the committee's findings and posits several recommendations to address these issues.

Responsible Research with Biological Select Agents and Toxins

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Committee on Laboratory Security and Personnel Reliability Assurance Systems for Laboratories Conducting Research on Biological Select Agents and Toxins
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 9780309150293
  • Total of Pages : 188
  • Category : Political Science
  • Members : 926
  • Pdf File: responsible-research-with-biological-select-agents-and-toxins.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The effort to understand and combat infectious diseases has, during the centuries, produced many key advances in science and medicine--including the development of vaccines, drugs, and other treatments. A subset of this research is conducted with agents that, like anthrax, not only pose a severe threat to the health of humans, plants, and animals but can also be used for ill-intended purposes. Such agents have been listed by the government as biological select agents and toxins. The 2001 anthrax letter attacks prompted the creation of new regulations aimed at increasing security for research with dangerous pathogens. The outcome of the anthrax letter investigation has raised concern about whether these measures are adequate. Responsible Research with Biological Select Agents and Toxins evaluates both the physical security of select agent laboratories and personnel reliability measures designed to ensure the trustworthiness of those with access to biological select agents and toxins. The book offers a set of guiding principles and recommended changes to minimize security risk and facilitate the productivity of research. The book recommends fostering a culture of trust and responsibility in the laboratory, engaging the community in oversight of the Select Agent Program, and enhancing the operation of the Select Agent Program.

Leadership in Science and Technology: A Reference Handbook

By William Sims Bainbridge
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : SAGE Publications
  • Book Code : 1452266522
  • Total of Pages : 984
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 444
  • Pdf File: leadership-in-science-and-technology.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This 2-volume set within the SAGE Reference Series on Leadership tackles issues relevant to leadership in the realm of science and technology. To encompass the key topics in this arena, this handbook features 100 topics arranged under eight headings. Volume 1 concentrates on general principles of science and technology leadership and includes sections on social-scientific perspectives on S&T leadership; key scientific concepts about leading and innovating in S&T; characteristics of S&T leaders and their environments; and strategies, tactics, and tools of S&T leadership. Volume 2 provides case studies of leadership in S&T, with sections considering leadership in informal communities of scientists and engineers; leadership in government projects and research initiatives; leadership in industry research, development, and innovation; and finally, leadership in education and university-based research. By focusing on key topics within 100 brief chapters, this unprecedented reference resource offers students more detailed information and depth of discussion than typically found in an encyclopedia entry but not as much jargon, detail or density as in a journal article or a research handbook chapter. Entries are written in language and style that is broadly accessible, and each is followed by cross-references and a brief bibliography and further readings. A detailed index and an online version of the work enhances accessibility for today's student audience.

Application of Modern Toxicology Approaches for Predicting Acute Toxicity for Chemical Defense

By National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Toxicology,Committee on Predictive-Toxicology Approaches for Military Assessments of Acute Exposures
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 0309376696
  • Total of Pages : 134
  • Category : Nature
  • Members : 567
  • Pdf File: application-of-modern-toxicology-approaches-for-predicting-acute-toxicity-for-chemical-defense.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The US Department of Defense (DOD) is faced with an overwhelming task in evaluating chemicals that could potentially pose a threat to its deployed personnel. There are over 84,000 registered chemicals, and testing them with traditional toxicity-testing methods is not feasible in terms of time or money. In recent years, there has been a concerted effort to develop new approaches to toxicity testing that incorporate advances in systems biology, toxicogenomics, bioinformatics, and computational toxicology. Given the advances, DOD asked the National Research Council to determine how DOD could use modern approaches for predicting chemical toxicity in its efforts to prevent debilitating, acute exposures to deployed personnel. This report provides an overall conceptual approach that DOD could use to develop a predictive toxicology system. Application of Modern Toxicology Approaches for Predicting Acute Toxicity for Chemical Defense reviews the current state of computational and high-throughput approaches for predicting acute toxicity and suggests methods for integrating data and predictions. This report concludes with lessons learned from current high-throughput screening programs and suggests some initial steps for DOD investment.

Toward a Sustainable and Secure Water Future

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Water Science and Technology Board,Committee on Water Resources Activities at the U.S. Geological Survey
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 9780309144544
  • Total of Pages : 129
  • Category : Nature
  • Members : 919
  • Pdf File: toward-a-sustainable-and-secure-water-future.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Water is our most fundamental natural resource, a resource that is limited. Challenges to our nation's water resources continue to grow, driven by population growth, ecological needs, climate change, and other pressures. The nation needs more and improved water science and information to meet these challenges. Toward a Sustainable and Secure Water Future reviews the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Water Resource Discipline (WRD), one of the nation's foremost water science organizations. This book provides constructive advice to help the WRD meet the nation's water needs over the coming decades. Of interest primarily to the leadership of the USGS WRD, many findings and recommendations also target the USGS leadership and the Department of Interior (DOI), because their support is necessary for the WRD to respond to the water needs of the nation.

Support for Forensic Science Research

By National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on Strengthening Forensic Science at the National Institute of Justice
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 0309376483
  • Total of Pages : 116
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 222
  • Pdf File: support-for-forensic-science-research.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Reliable and valid forensic science analytic techniques are critical to a credible, fair, and evidence-based criminal justice system. There is widespread agreement that the scientific foundation of some currently available forensic science methods needs strengthening and that additional, more efficient techniques are urgently needed. These needs can only be met through sustained research programs explicitly designed to ensure and improve the reliability and validity of current methods and to foster the development and use of new and better techniques. This task is challenging due to the broad nature of the field. Concerns have been raised repeatedly about the ability of the criminal justice system to collect and analyze evidence efficiently and to be fair in its verdicts. Although significant progress has been made in some forensic science disciplines, the forensic science community still faces many challenges. Federal leadership, particularly in regard to research and the scientific validation of forensic science methods, is needed to help meet the pressing issues facing state and local jurisdictions. This report reviews the progress made by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to advance forensic science research since the 2009 report, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward and the 2010 report, Strengthening the National Institute of Justice. Support for Forensic Science Research examines the ways in which NIJ develops its forensic science research priorities and communicates those priorities as well as its findings to the scientific and forensic practitioner communities in order to determine the impact of NIJ forensic science research programs and how that impact can be enhanced.

State Voter Registration Databases

By National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Computer Science and Telecommunications Board,Committee on State Voter Registration Databases
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 9780309178587
  • Total of Pages : 74
  • Category : Political Science
  • Members : 824
  • Pdf File: state-voter-registration-databases.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Help America Vote Act of 2002 requires the states to develop a single, computerized voter registration data base (VRD) that is defined, maintained, and administered at the state level. To help the states with this task, the U.S. Election Assistance Commission asked the NRC to organize a series of workshops and prepare an interim report addressing the challenges in implementing and maintaining state VRDs. The EAC also asked the NRC to advise the states on how to evolve and maintain the databases so that they can share information with each other. This report provides an examination of various challenges to the deployment of state VRDs and describes potential solutions to these challenges. This interim report's primary focus is on shorter-term recommendations although a number of long-range recommendations are presented. The final report will elaborate on the long-range questions and address considerations about interstate interoperability of the VRDs.

Pollution Control in United States

By J. Clarence Davies,Jan Mazurek
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1135891737
  • Total of Pages : 336
  • Category : Technology & Engineering
  • Members : 710
  • Pdf File: pollution-control-in-united-states.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Pollution control, a key component of U.S. environmental policy, has made important progress in recent decades. Yet important problems remain and there is need for improvement in the pollution control regulatory system. This book is the most extensive evaluation of that system ever produced. It reveals many strengths and accomplishments, but also illustrates serious shortcomings and the need for reform. The volume emerges from three years of research on a fragmented 'system' of institutions, statutes, and procedures that is often inefficient and ineffective, hobbled by misplaced priorities. Part I provides an in-depth description of this system, centered on the federal Environmental Protection Agency and the labyrinthine laws it must implement. The authors evaluate the federal legislation, administrative decisionmaking, and the state-federal division of labor that defines the system. Davies and Mazurek assess the effectiveness and efficiency of U.S. pollution control. They discuss the performance of U.S. laws and regulations in comparison with those of other nations, assess the ability of the U.S. pollution control system to meet future problems, and consider proposals for reform and repair. Within this far reaching analysis, they include criteria that are often overlooked by policymakers and analysts, including social values, equity, nonintrusiveness, and public participation.

Pollution Control in United States

By J. Clarence Davies,Jan Mazurek
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1135891664
  • Total of Pages : 336
  • Category : Technology & Engineering
  • Members : 574
  • Pdf File: pollution-control-in-united-states.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Pollution control, a key component of U.S. environmental policy, has made important progress in recent decades. Yet important problems remain and there is need for improvement in the pollution control regulatory system. This book is the most extensive evaluation of that system ever produced. It reveals many strengths and accomplishments, but also illustrates serious shortcomings and the need for reform. The volume emerges from three years of research on a fragmented 'system' of institutions, statutes, and procedures that is often inefficient and ineffective, hobbled by misplaced priorities. Part I provides an in-depth description of this system, centered on the federal Environmental Protection Agency and the labyrinthine laws it must implement. The authors evaluate the federal legislation, administrative decisionmaking, and the state-federal division of labor that defines the system. Davies and Mazurek assess the effectiveness and efficiency of U.S. pollution control. They discuss the performance of U.S. laws and regulations in comparison with those of other nations, assess the ability of the U.S. pollution control system to meet future problems, and consider proposals for reform and repair. Within this far reaching analysis, they include criteria that are often overlooked by policymakers and analysts, including social values, equity, nonintrusiveness, and public participation.

Strengthening the National Institute of Justice

By National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on Assessing the Research Program of the National Institute of Justice
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 9780309162944
  • Total of Pages : 334
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 943
  • Pdf File: strengthening-the-national-institute-of-justice.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the nation's primary resource for advancing scientific research, development, and evaluation on crime and crime control and the administration of justice in the United States. Headed by a presidentially appointed director, it is one of the major units in the Office of Justice Programs (OJP) of the U.S. Department of Justice. Under its authorizing legislation, NIJ awards grants and contracts to a variety of public and private organizations and individuals. At the request of NIJ, Strengthening the National Institute of Justice assesses the operations and quality of the full range of its programs. These include social science research, science and technology research and development, capacity building, and technology assistance. The book concludes that a federal research institute such as NIJ is vital to the nation's continuing efforts to control crime and administer justice. No other federal, state, local, or private organization can do what NIJ was created to do. Forty years ago, Congress envisioned a science agency dedicated to building knowledge to support crime prevention and control by developing a wide range of techniques for dealing with individual offenders, identifying injustices and biases in the administration of justice, and supporting more basic and operational research on crime and the criminal justice system and the involvement of the community in crime control efforts. As the embodiment of that vision, NIJ has accomplished a great deal. It has succeeded in developing a body of knowledge on such important topics as hot spots policing, violence against women, the role of firearms and drugs in crime, drug courts, and forensic DNA analysis. It has helped build the crime and justice research infrastructure. It has also widely disseminated the results of its research programs to help guide practice and policy. But its efforts have been severely hampered by a lack of independence, authority, and discretionary resources to carry out its mission.

Evaluation of Future Strategic and Energy Efficient Options for the U.S. Capitol Power Plant

By National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment,Committee on the Evaluation of Future Strategic and Energy Efficient Alternatives for the U.S Capitol Power Plant
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 9780309143745
  • Total of Pages : 48
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 681
  • Pdf File: evaluation-of-future-strategic-and-energy-efficient-options-for-the-u-s-capitol-power-plant.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The U.S. Capitol Complex in Washington, D.C., comprises some of the most historic and symbolic buildings in the nation. The steam and chilled water required to heat and cool these buildings and related equipment is generated and distributed by the Capitol Power Plant (CPP) district energy system. Portions of the CPP system are now 50 to 100 years old and require renewal so that reliable utility services can be provided to the U.S. Capitol Complex for the foreseeable future. Evaluation of Future Strategic and Energy Efficient Options for the U.S. Capitol Power Plant provides comments on an interim set of publicly available consultant-generated options for the delivery of utility services to the U.S. Capitol Complex. The report provides recommendations to bring the interim options to completion, including suggestions for additional analyses, so that the CPP can be best positioned to meet the future strategic and energy efficiency requirements of the U.S. Capitol Complex.

Assessing Economic Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

By National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 9780309141154
  • Total of Pages : 54
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 330
  • Pdf File: assessing-economic-impacts-of-greenhouse-gas-mitigation.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Many economic models exist to estimate the cost and effectiveness of different policies for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Some approaches incorporate rich technological detail, others emphasize the aggregate behavior of the economy and energy system, and some focus on impacts for specific sectors. Understandably, different approaches may be better positioned to provide particular types of information and may yield differing results, at times rendering decisions on future climate change emissions and research and development (R&D) policy difficult. Reliable estimates of the costs and benefits to the U.S. economy for various emissions reduction and adaptation strategies are critical to federal climate change R&D portfolio planning and investment decisions. At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Academies organized a workshop to consider these issues. The workshop, summarized in this volume, comprised three dimensions: policy, analysis, and economics. Discussions along these dimensions were meant to lead to constructive identification of gaps and opportunities. The workshop focused on (1) policymakers' informational needs; (2) models and other analytic approaches to meet these needs; (3) important economic considerations, including equity and discounting; and (4) opportunities to enhance analytical capabilities and better inform policy.

Ocean incineration : its role in managing hazardous waste.

By
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
  • Book Code : 142892308X
  • Total of Pages : 99
  • Category :
  • Members : 561
  • Pdf File: ocean-incineration.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Read and download full book Ocean incineration : its role in managing hazardous waste.

Science at EPA

By Mark R. Powell
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1134271697
  • Total of Pages : 448
  • Category : Technology & Engineering
  • Members : 121
  • Pdf File: science-at-epa.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was created to protect public health and the environment, and it has traditionally emphasized its regulatory mission over its scientific mission. Yet for environmental policy to be credible with the public and policymakers, EPA's actions must have a sound basis in science. In Science at EPA, Mark Powell offers detailed case studies that map the origins, flow, and impact of scientific information in eight EPA decisions involving the agency's major statutory programs. Drawing on extensive research and interviews, he provides the most comprehensive examination available on the acquisition and use of science in environmental regulation. Powell describes the key obstacles to the practical, efficient, and effective acquisition and use of knowledge in what is a crucial, but complex endeavor. His book is an essential contribution for practitioners, scholars and students, and citizens who are determined to protect our environment rationally and effectively.

Re-engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability

By Andrew Y. C. Nee,Bin Song,Soh-Khim Ong
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Book Code : 9814451487
  • Total of Pages : 738
  • Category : Technology & Engineering
  • Members : 961
  • Pdf File: re-engineering-manufacturing-for-sustainability.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This edited volume presents the proceedings of the 20th CIRP LCE Conference, which cover various areas in life cycle engineering such as life cycle design, end-of-life management, manufacturing processes, manufacturing systems, methods and tools for sustainability, social sustainability, supply chain management, remanufacturing, etc.