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In God's Path

By Robert G. Hoyland
  • ISBN Code: : 0199916373
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Pages : 320
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 293
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : in-god-s-path.pdf

Book Excerpt :

In just over a hundred years--from the death of Muhammad in 632 to the beginning of the Abbasid Caliphate in 750--the followers of the Prophet swept across the whole of the Middle East, North Africa, and Spain. Their armies threatened states as far flung as the Franks in Western Europe and the Tang Empire in China. The conquered territory was larger than the Roman Empire at its greatest expansion, and it was claimed for the Arabs in roughly half the time. How this collection of Arabian tribes was able to engulf so many empires, states, and armies in such a short period has perplexed historians for centuries. Most accounts of the Arab invasions have been based almost solely on the early Muslim sources, which were composed centuries later to illustrate the divinely chosen status of the Arabs. Robert Hoyland's groundbreaking new history assimilates not only the rich biographical information of the early Muslim sources but also the many non-Arabic sources, contemporaneous or near-contemporaneous with the conquests. In God's Path begins with a broad picture of the Late Antique world prior to the Prophet's arrival, a world dominated by two superpowers: Byzantium and Sasanian Persia. In between these empires, emerged a distinct Arabian identity, which helped forge the inhabitants of western Arabia into a formidable fighting force. The Arabs are the principal actors in this drama yet, as Hoyland shows, the peoples along the edges of Byzantium and Persia--the Khazars, Bulgars, Avars, and Turks--all played critical roles in the remaking of the old world order. The new faith propagated by Muhammad and his successors made it possible for many of the conquered peoples to join the Arabs in creating the first Islamic Empire. Well-paced, comprehensive, and eminently readable, In God's Path presents a sweeping narrative of a transformational period in world history.

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The emergence of Islam in the seventh century AD still polarises scholars who seek to separate religious truth from the historical reality with which it is associated. However, history and prophecy are not solely defined by positive evidence or apocalyptic truth, but by human subjects, who consider them to convey distinct messages and in turn make these messages meaningful to others. These messages are mutually interdependent, and analysed together provide new insights into history. It is by way of this concept that Olof Heilo presents the decline of the Eastern Roman Empire as a key to understanding the rise of Islam; two historical processes often perceived as distinct from one another. Eastern Rome and the Rise of Islam highlights significant convergences between Early Islam and the Late Ancient world. It suggests that Islam’s rise is a feature of a common process during which tensions between imperial ambitions and apocalyptic beliefs in Europe and the Middle East cut straight across today’s theological and political definitions. The conquests of Islam, the emergence of the caliphate, and the transformation of the Roman and Christian world are approached from both prophetic anticipations in the Ancient and Late Ancient world, and from the Medieval and Modern receptions of history. In the shadow of their narratives it becomes possible to trace the outline of a shared history of Christianity and Islam. The "Dark Ages" thus emerge not merely as a tale of sound and fury, but as an era of openness, diversity and unexpected possibilities. Approaching the rise of Islam as a historical phenomenon, this book opens new perspectives in the study of early religion and philosophy, as well as providing a valuable resource for students and scholars of Islamic Studies.

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  • Pdf File: a-history-of-the-muslim-world-to-1405.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Muslims first appeared in the early seventh century as members of a persecuted religious movement in a sun-baked town in Arabia. Within a century, their descendants were ruling a vast territory that extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River valley in modern Pakistan. This region became the arena for a new cultural experiment in which Muslim scholars and creative artists synthesized and reworked the legacy of Rome, Greece, Iran, and India into a new civilization. A History of the Muslim World to 1405 traces the development of this civilization from the career of the Prophet Muhammad to the death of the Mongol emperor Timur Lang. Coverage includes the unification of the Dar a1-Islam (the territory ruled by Muslims), the fragmentation into various religious and political groups including the Shi'ite and Sunni, and the series of catastrophes in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries that threatened to destroy the civilization. Features: Balanced coverage of the Muslim world encompassing the region from the Iberian Peninsula to South Asia. Detailed accounts of all cultures including major Shi'ite groups and the Sunni community. Primary sources. Numerous maps and photographs featuring a special four-color art insert. Glossary, charts, and timelines.

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  • Pdf File: the-life-of-muhammad.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In THE LlFE OF MUHAMMAD, Haykal achieves two objectives admirably: first, a biography which reveals the career of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in the full light of historic reality; second, bringing out the essence of Islam, as exemplified in the life of the greatest Muslim. It includes complete coverage of the Prophet's life, a detailed analysis of pre-Islamic Arabia, the situational context of revelation, and a comparative study of the basics of lslamic and western civilizations. It is based upon a scholarly examination of all of the extant Sirah and Hadith literature (the Prophet's life, his sayings and narrations of his teachings by his contemporaries) with the eye of an objective, scientific and critical scholar who is well-versed in modern historical critical methodology. THE LlFE OF MUHAMMAD is an essential book for all English-speaking Muslims, as well as non-Muslims. This English version has been approved by the Supreme Council for lslamic Affairs, Cairo.

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : الابداع الفكري
  • Book Code : N.a
  • Total of Pages : 268
  • Category : Religion
  • Members : 531
  • Pdf File: the-illustrated-history-of-islam.pdf

Book Short Summary:

“Part One: About the history of humanity, religions and Arabs before Islam, then a nice summary of the prophetic biography, followed by a demonstration of the most important parts of the Rashidun (the rightfully guided) caliphs period. Part Two: About the history of the Umayyad State and the Abbasid State, also the several statelets that got independent away from both states. Part Three: About the history of the Ottoman State and the several statelets that existed at the same period, followed by a summary of the modern history and the contemporary countries, after the fall of the caliphate. I was keen on making this book include significant additions, that would give it several advantages and make it a reference for the youth of the nation in all Islamic history related issues.”

History and Development of the Arabic Language

By Muhammad al-Sharkawi
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Taylor & Francis
  • Book Code : 1317588649
  • Total of Pages : 274
  • Category : Foreign Language Study
  • Members : 505
  • Pdf File: history-and-development-of-the-arabic-language.pdf

Book Short Summary:

History and Development of the Arabic Language is a general introduction for students to the history of the Arabic language. It is divided into two parts; the pre-Islamic language up to the emergence of the first well-known works of Classical Arabic. Secondly, the transition from the pre-Islamic situation to the complex Arabic language forms after the emergence of Islam and the Arab conquests, both in Arabia and in the diaspora. The book focuses on the pre-Islamic linguistic situation, where the linguistic geography and relevant demographic aspects of pre-Islamic Arabia will be introduced. In addition, the book will also discuss the communicative contexts and varieties of Modern Arabic. The book includes readings, discussion questions and data sets to provide a complete textbook and resource for teachers and students of the history of Arabic.

Reviving the Islamic Caliphate in Early Modern Morocco

By Stephen Cory
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1317063430
  • Total of Pages : 296
  • Category : History
  • Members : 224
  • Pdf File: reviving-the-islamic-caliphate-in-early-modern-morocco.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Historians have long grappled with the question of how Islamic civilization - so clearly dominant during the medieval period - could fall completely under Western hegemony in the modern age? Many Western writers answer this question by referencing European ingenuity, initiative, and transformative energy in contrast with Islamic parochialism, passivity, and resistance to change. This book challenges such assumptions by studying the career of an aggressive sultan in early-modern Morocco, Mulay Ahmad al-Mansur (r. 1578-1603), who dared to take on the international super-powers of his day and sought to redraw the map of Islamic Africa. Al-Mansur is best known for launching a bold invasion across the Sahara desert to conquer the West African Songhay Empire. Most historians ascribe strictly economic motives for this assault, stating that the sultan wished to capture the prosperous gold trade that had traveled for centuries from West Africa to the Mediterranean. Dr Cory argues instead that Mulay Ahmad was pursuing more expansive goals than simply stuffing his coffers with West African gold, as evidenced by audacious claims made on his behalf in numerous panegyric texts produced by the sultan's court. Through a detailed analysis of official histories, documents and correspondence, writings by European observers, and architectural evidence, he contends that the sultan sought to establish a Western caliphate that would eclipse the Ottoman Empire. Mulay Ahmad advanced this agenda through panegyric literature, elaborate court ceremonies, grand constructions, stunning military conquests, and astute diplomacy with European powers, Ottoman officials, and sub-Saharan rulers. Such assertions of universal caliphal authority had not been seriously promoted in Islam for over three hundred years before al-Mansur's reign. Thus al-Mansur sought to move his country forward into the modern age by returning to an institution that had governed Muslim lands during the fabled golden age of the Abbasid and Andalusian Umayyad caliphates. Through an investigation of the sultan's ambitions and achievements Dr Cory provides new insight into the history of relations between Muslim states and the West.

Slaves and Slavery in Africa

By John Ralph Willis
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1317792149
  • Total of Pages : 284
  • Category : History
  • Members : 771
  • Pdf File: slaves-and-slavery-in-africa.pdf

Book Short Summary:

First published in 1986. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

The Great Arab Conquests

By Hugh Kennedy
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Weidenfeld & Nicolson
  • Book Code : 0297865595
  • Total of Pages : 448
  • Category : History
  • Members : 883
  • Pdf File: the-great-arab-conquests.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A popular history of the Arab invasions that carved out an empire from Spain to China Today's Arab world was created at breathtaking speed. Whereas the Roman Empire took over 200 years to reach its fullest extent, the Arab armies overran the whole Middle East, North Africa and Spain within a generation. They annihilated the thousand-year-old Persian Empire and reduced the Byzantine Empire to little more than a city-state based around Constantinople. Within a hundred years of the Prophet's death, Muslim armies destroyed the Visigoth kingdom of Spain, and crossed the Pyrenees to occupy southern France. This is the first popular English language account of this astonishing remaking of the political and religious map of the world. Hugh Kennedy's sweeping narrative reveals how the Arab armies conquered almost everything in their path. One of the few academic historians with a genuine talent for story telling, he offers a compelling mix of larger-than-life characters, battles, treachery and the clash of civilizations.

Berenike and the Ancient Maritime Spice Route

By Steven E. Sidebotham
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Univ of California Press
  • Book Code : 0520948386
  • Total of Pages : 456
  • Category : History
  • Members : 850
  • Pdf File: berenike-and-the-ancient-maritime-spice-route.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The legendary overland silk road was not the only way to reach Asia for ancient travelers from the Mediterranean. During the Roman Empire’s heyday, equally important maritime routes reached from the Egyptian Red Sea across the Indian Ocean. The ancient city of Berenike, located approximately 500 miles south of today’s Suez Canal, was a significant port among these conduits. In this book, Steven E. Sidebotham, the archaeologist who excavated Berenike, uncovers the role the city played in the regional, local, and "global" economies during the eight centuries of its existence. Sidebotham analyzes many of the artifacts, botanical and faunal remains, and hundreds of the texts he and his team found in excavations, providing a profoundly intimate glimpse of the people who lived, worked, and died in this emporium between the classical Mediterranean world and Asia.

The Last Muslim Conquest

By Gábor Ágoston
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Book Code : 0691205388
  • Total of Pages : 688
  • Category : History
  • Members : 875
  • Pdf File: the-last-muslim-conquest.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A monumental work of history that reveals the Ottoman dynasty's important role in the emergence of early modern Europe The Ottomans have long been viewed as despots who conquered through sheer military might, and whose dynasty was peripheral to those of Europe. The Last Muslim Conquest transforms our understanding of the Ottoman Empire, showing how Ottoman statecraft was far more pragmatic and sophisticated than previously acknowledged, and how the Ottoman dynasty was a crucial player in the power struggles of early modern Europe. In this panoramic and multifaceted book, Gábor Ágoston captures the grand sweep of Ottoman history, from the dynasty's stunning rise to power at the turn of the fourteenth century to the Siege of Vienna in 1683, which brought an end to Ottoman incursions into central Europe. He discusses how the Ottoman wars of conquest gave rise to the imperial rivalry with the Habsburgs, and brings vividly to life the intrigues of sultans, kings, popes, and spies. Ágoston examines the subtler methods of Ottoman conquest, such as dynastic marriages and the incorporation of conquered peoples into the Ottoman administration, and argues that while the Ottoman Empire was shaped by Turkish, Iranian, and Islamic influences, it was also an integral part of Europe and was, in many ways, a European empire. Rich in narrative detail, The Last Muslim Conquest looks at Ottoman military capabilities, frontier management, law, diplomacy, and intelligence, offering new perspectives on the gradual shift in power between the Ottomans and their European rivals and reframing the old story of Ottoman decline.

A Companion to the History of the Middle East

By Youssef M. Choueiri
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Book Code : 1405152044
  • Total of Pages : 624
  • Category : History
  • Members : 871
  • Pdf File: a-companion-to-the-history-of-the-middle-east.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A Companion to the History of the Middle East offers a fresh account of the multifaceted and multi-layered history of this region. A fresh account of the multifaceted and multi-layered history of the Middle East Comprises 26 newly-commissioned essays by leading international scholars Primarily focused on the modern and contemporary periods Covers religious, social, cultural, economic, political and military history Treats the region as four differentiated political units – Iran, Turkey, Israel and the Arab world Includes a section on current issues, such as oil, urban growth, the role of women, and democratic human rights

Essays in Islamic Philology, History, and Philosophy

By Alireza Korangy,Wheeler M. Thackston,Roy P. Mottahedeh,William Granara
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Book Code : 3110313782
  • Total of Pages : 476
  • Category : History
  • Members : 419
  • Pdf File: essays-in-islamic-philology-history-and-philosophy.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The articles in this volume are dedicated to Professor Ahmad Mahdavi Damghani for the breadth and depth of his interests and his influence on those interests. They attest to the fact that his fervor and rigorously surgical attention to detail have found fertile ground in a wide variety of disciplines, including (among others) Persian literature and philology; Islamic history and historiography; Arabic literature and philology; and Islamic philosophy and jurisprudence. The volume has brought together some of the most respected scholars in the fields of Islamic studies and Islamic literatures, all his prior students, to contribute with articles that touch on the fields Professor Mahdavi Damghani has so permanently touched with his astonishing scholarship and attention to detail.

American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 28:1

By M. Ashraf Adeel ,Dr. Anke Iman Bouzenital ,Necmettin Kizilkaya,Ahmad F. Yousif,Aun Hasan Ali ,Christina Sunardi ,Matthew A. MacDonald ,Elliott Bazzano,Sara Ababneh ,Shadaab Rahemtulla,Dr. Sharon Sasson,Tammy Gaber,Tauseef Ahmad Parray
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT)
  • Book Code : N.a
  • Total of Pages : 180
  • Category :
  • Members : 697
  • Pdf File: american-journal-of-islamic-social-sciences-28.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences (AJISS), established in 1984, is a quarterly, double blind peer-reviewed and interdisciplinary journal, published by the International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT), and distributed worldwide. The journal showcases a wide variety of scholarly research on all facets of Islam and the Muslim world including subjects such as anthropology, history, philosophy and metaphysics, politics, psychology, religious law, and traditional Islam.

Understanding War

By Christian P. Potholm
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : UPA
  • Book Code : 0761867740
  • Total of Pages : 718
  • Category : History
  • Members : 557
  • Pdf File: understanding-war.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The third book in Professor Christian Potholm’s war trilogy (which includes Winning at War and War Wisdom), Understanding War provides a most workable bibliography dealing with the vast literature on war and warfare. As such, it provides insights into over 3000 works on this overwhelmingly extensive material. Understanding War is thus the most comprehensive annotated bibliography available today. Moreover, by dividing war material into eighteen overarching themes of analysis and fifty seminal topics, and focusing on these, Understanding War enables the reader to access and understand the broadest possible array of materials across both time and space, beginning with the earliest forms of warfare and concluding with the contemporary situation. Stimulating and thought-provoking, this volume is essential for an understanding of the breadth and depth of the vast scholarship dealing with war and warfare through human history and across cultures.

The Archaeology of the Early Islamic Settlement in Palestine

By Jodi Magness
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Penn State Press
  • Book Code : 157506538X
  • Total of Pages : 248
  • Category : History
  • Members : 377
  • Pdf File: the-archaeology-of-the-early-islamic-settlement-in-palestine.pdf

Book Short Summary:

There is a common perception that the Muslim conquest of Palestine in the seventh century caused a decline in the number and prosperity of settlements throughout the country. The role played by archaeology in perpetuating this view, claims Magness, is particularly insidious, because it is perceived, rightly or wrongly, as providing “scientific” (and therefore “objective”) data. Thus, archaeological evidence is frequently cited by scholars as proof or confirmation that Palestine declined after the Muslim conquest, and especially after the rise of the Abbasids in the mid-eighth century. Instead, Magness argues that the archaeological evidence, freed insofar as possible of political and/or religious biases, supports the idea that Palestine and Syria experienced a tremendous growth in population and prosperity between the mid-sixth and mid-seventh centuries. Such a radical shift in the interpretation of the evidence guarantees that this volume will be a benchmark with which future interpretations must reckon. The book includes a CD with map and key, which provides additional information regarding the sites studied and the area examined.