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The Jews and the Expansion of Europe to the West, 1450-1800

By Paolo Bernardini,Norman Fiering
  • ISBN Code: : 1782389768
  • Publisher : Berghahn Books
  • Pages : 592
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 392
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : the-jews-and-the-expansion-of-europe-to-the-west-1450-1800.pdf

Book Excerpt :

Jews and Judaism played a significant role in the history of the expansion of Europe to the west as well as in the history of the economic, social, and religious development of the New World. They played an important role in the discovery, colonization, and eventually exploitation of the resources of the New World. Alone among the European peoples who came to the Americas in the colonial period, Jews were dispersed throughout the hemisphere; indeed, they were the only cohesive European ethnic or religious group that lived under both Catholic and Protestant regimes, which makes their study particularly fruitful from a comparative perspective. As distinguished from other religious or ethnic minorities, the Jewish struggle was not only against an overpowering and fierce nature but also against the political regimes that ruled over the various colonies of the Americas and often looked unfavorably upon the establishment and tleration of Jewish communities in their own territory. Jews managed to survive and occasionally to flourish against all odds, and their history in the Americas is one of the more fascinating chapters in the early modern history of European expansion.

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Sephardic and Ashkenazic Judaism have long been studied separately. Yet, scholars are becoming ever more aware of the need to merge them into a single field of Jewish Studies. This volume opens new perspectives and bridges traditional gaps. The authors are not simply contributing to their respective fields of Sephardic or Ashkenazic Studies. Rather, they all include both Sephardic and Ashkenazic perspectives as they reflect on different aspects of encounters and reconsider traditional narratives. Subjects range from medieval and early modern Sephardic and Ashkenazic constructions of identities, influences, and entanglements in the fields of religious art, halakhah, kabbalah, messianism, and charity to modern Ashkenazic Sephardism and Sephardic admiration for Ashkenazic culture. For reasons of coherency, the contributions all focus on European contexts between the fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries.

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1351191934
  • Total of Pages : 294
  • Category : Literary Criticism
  • Members : 557
  • Pdf File: reading-literature-in-portuguese.pdf

Book Short Summary:

"This collection brings together textual commentaries on thirty representative works of literature in Portuguese - either complete poems or extracts from longer works - ranging from the medieval lyric of the 13th century, through the poetry and drama of the Portuguese Renaissance, the great Realist novels of the nineteenth century, early twentieth century Modernism and post-1974 writings through to the present day, while also including examples of 19th- and 20th- century Brazilian literature. The authors chosen - poets, dramatists and novelists - are generally regarded as iconic writers, and the three most famous canonical Portuguese authors (Luis de Camoes, Fernando Pessoa, Jose Saramago) are featured, but the texts selected for commentary strike a balance between a focus on well-known and lesser-studied works. All the primary texts are reproduced in Portuguese, sometimes in original editions, with English translations added for the majority. The contributors variously explicate and contextualise the works they present, some focusing on hidden meaning, others on philological aspects of editing, others on their historical, intellectual and philosophical context, and others still on the process of translation itself. All, however, aim to develop the art of reading, for the benefit of scholars and students alike. Stephen Parkinson and Claudia Pazos Alonso are members of the Sub-Faculty of Portuguese at Oxford University, and editors of the Companion to Portuguese Literature (Tamesis, 2009)."

Haskalah

By Olga Litvak
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Rutgers University Press
  • Book Code : 0813554373
  • Total of Pages : 246
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 731
  • Pdf File: haskalah.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Commonly translated as the “Jewish Enlightenment,” the Haskalah propelled Jews into modern life. Olga Litvak argues that the idea of a Jewish modernity, championed by adherents of this movement, did not originate in Western Europe’s age of reason. Litvak contends that the Haskalah spearheaded a Jewish religious revival, better understood against the background of Eastern European Romanticism. Based on imaginative and historically grounded readings of primary sources, Litvak presents a compelling case for rethinking the relationship between the Haskalah and the experience of political and social emancipation. Most importantly, she challenges the prevailing view that the Haskalah provided the philosophical mainspring for Jewish liberalism. In Litvak’s ambitious interpretation, nineteenth-century Eastern European intellectuals emerge as the authors of a Jewish Romantic revolution. Fueled by contradictory longings both for community and for personal freedom, the poets and scholars associated with the Haskalah questioned the moral costs of civic equality and the achievement of middle-class status. In the nineteenth century, their conservative approach to culture as the cure for the spiritual ills of the modern individual provided a powerful argument for the development of Jewish nationalism. Today, their ideas are equally resonant in contemporary debates about the ramifications of secularization for the future of Judaism.

Revolutionary Jews from Spinoza to Marx

By Jonathan I. Israel
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : University of Washington Press
  • Book Code : 0295748672
  • Total of Pages : 544
  • Category : History
  • Members : 773
  • Pdf File: revolutionary-jews-from-spinoza-to-marx.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries a small but conspicuous fringe of the Jewish population became the world’s most resolute, intellectually driven, and philosophical revolutionaries, among them the pre-Marxist Karl Marx. Yet the roots of their alienation from existing society and determination to change it extend back to the very heart of the Enlightenment, when Spinoza and other philosophers living in a rigid, hierarchical society colored by a deeply hostile theology first developed a modern revolutionary consciousness. Leading intellectual historian Jonathan Israel shows how the radical ideas in the early Marx’s writings were influenced by this legacy, which, he argues, must be understood as part of the Radical Enlightenment. He traces the rise of a Jewish revolutionary tendency demanding social equality and universal human rights throughout the Western world. Israel considers how these writers understood Jewish marginalization and ghettoization and the edifice of superstition, prejudice, and ignorance that sustained them. He investigates how the quest for Jewish emancipation led these thinkers to formulate sweeping theories of social and legal reform that paved the way for revolutionary actions that helped change the world from 1789 onward—but hardly as they intended.

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam in the Course of History: Exchange and Conflicts

By Lothar Gall,Dietmar Willoweit
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Book Code : 3110446731
  • Total of Pages : 482
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 536
  • Pdf File: judaism-christianity-and-islam-in-the-course-of-history.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Das Verhältnis zwischen Judentum, Christentum und Islam unterlag im Laufe der Geschichte vielfältigen Veränderungen. Welche Konflikte gab es, welche Phasen und Formen von Austausch und Kooperation standen dem gegenüber? Der Band ist das Ergebnis einer Tagung aus dem Jahr 2009. Wissenschaftler aus sechs Ländern präsentieren nun die Ergebnisse. Die Sektionen behandeln die "Gegenseitige Wahrnehmung vor dem 1. Weltkrieg", "Kultur, Bildung, Fremdwahrnehmung" seit 1945, "Austausch und Konflikte" von der Frühen Neuzeit bis ins 20. Jahrhundert, das "Rechtsverständnis", "Recht und Wirtschaft", die "Religionsgelehrsamkeit" sowie "gesellschaftliche Integration und Bewahrung der Identität". Mit Beiträgen von: Kilian Bälz, Hans-Jürgen Becker, Hartmut Bobzin, Michael Brenner, Micha Brumlik, Thomas E. Burman, John Efron, Leila Tarazi Fawaz, Claude Gilliot, Friedrich Wilhelm Graf, Peter Heine, Karl Homann, Yosef Kaplan, Thomas Kaufmann, Yavuz Köse, Gudrun Krämer, Michael Kreutz, Roland Löffler, Wolfgang Loschelder, Hans Maier, Asher Meir, Tilman Nagel, Matthias Pohlig, Maurus Reinkowski, Mathias Rohe, Heinz Schilling, Reinhard Schulze, Martin Tamcke, Georges Tamer, Lucette Valensi, Dietmar Willoweit, Israel Yuval und einer Podiumsdiskussion der Sektionsleiter.

The Baroque Organ of the Coimbra University Chapel

By Joel Canhão,Marco Daniel Duarte
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra / Coimbra University Press
  • Book Code : 9898074086
  • Total of Pages : 88
  • Category : Organ (Musical instrument)
  • Members : 842
  • Pdf File: the-baroque-organ-of-the-coimbra-university-chapel.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Património artístico da mais pura água e memória de um passado recente vertido em beleza, o órgão da capela da Universidade de Coimbra constitui uma peça rara cuja divulgação é imperativo da presente monografia. Longe de se tratar de um estudo exaustivo, pretendeu-se uma exposição breve e atraente capaz de captar o mais vasto público. Desde a história de construção à seleção dos elementos fundamentais da sua fábrica, entre os quais assume destacada relevância o único manual para o comando de três secções, passando pela sua filiação ibérica até ao uso dos pedais cujo emprego é acompanhado de sugestões, pelas madeiras e metais mais utilizados, até à forma e posição dos tubos, são exemplo de alguns aspetos focados. Não ficaram também por referir questões do foro estético ligadas à audição e ao visual, duas vertentes aqui profundamente apelativas, designadamente a excelência de qualidade sonora de alguns flautados e a riqueza luxuriante do trabalho de talha que emoldura o órgão.

Literature of Travel and Exploration

By Jennifer Speake
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1135456631
  • Total of Pages : 2100
  • Category : Business & Economics
  • Members : 867
  • Pdf File: literature-of-travel-and-exploration.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Containing more than 600 entries, this valuable resource presents all aspects of travel writing. There are entries on places and routes (Afghanistan, Black Sea, Egypt, Gobi Desert, Hawaii, Himalayas, Italy, Northwest Passage, Samarkand, Silk Route, Timbuktu), writers (Isabella Bird, Ibn Battuta, Bruce Chatwin, Gustave Flaubert, Mary Kingsley, Walter Ralegh, Wilfrid Thesiger), methods of transport and types of journey (balloon, camel, grand tour, hunting and big game expeditions, pilgrimage, space travel and exploration), genres (buccaneer narratives, guidebooks, New World chronicles, postcards), companies and societies (East India Company, Royal Geographical Society, Society of Dilettanti), and issues and themes (censorship, exile, orientalism, and tourism). For a full list of entries and contributors, a generous selection of sample entries, and more, visit the Literature of Travel and Exploration: An Encyclopedia website.

A Comparative History of Literatures in the Iberian Peninsula

By Fernando Cabo Aseguinolaza,Anxo Abuín Gonzalez,César Domínguez
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing
  • Book Code : 9027288399
  • Total of Pages : 750
  • Category : Literary Criticism
  • Members : 776
  • Pdf File: a-comparative-history-of-literatures-in-the-iberian-peninsula.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A Comparative History of Literatures in the Iberian Peninsula is the second comparative history of a new subseries with a regional focus, published by the Coordinating Committee of the International Comparative Literature Association. As its predecessor for East-Central Europe, this two-volume history distances itself from traditional histories built around periods and movements, and explores, from a comparative viewpoint, a space considered to be a powerful symbol of inter-literary relations. Both the geographical pertinence and its symbolic condition are obviously discussed, when not even contested. Written by an international team of researchers who are specialists in the field, this history is the first attempt at applying a comparative approach to the plurilingual and multicultural literatures in the Iberian Peninsula. The aim of comprehensiveness is abandoned in favor of a diverse and extensive array of key issues for a comparative agenda. A Comparative History of Literatures in the Iberian Peninsula undermines the primacy claimed for national and linguistic boundaries, and provides a geo-cultural account of literary inter-systems which cannot otherwise be explained.

Tropical Versailles

By Kirsten Schultz
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1135308403
  • Total of Pages : 320
  • Category : History
  • Members : 218
  • Pdf File: tropical-versailles.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This engaging study tells the fascinating story of the only European empire to relocate its capital to the New World.