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Philosophical Logic

By John MacFarlane
  • ISBN Code: : 1351733567
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 258
  • Category : Computers
  • Reads : 592
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : philosophical-logic.pdf

Book Excerpt :

Introductory logic is generally taught as a straightforward technical discipline. In this book, John MacFarlane helps the reader think about the limitations of, presuppositions of, and alternatives to classical first-order predicate logic, making this an ideal introduction to philosophical logic for any student who already has completed an introductory logic course. The book explores the following questions. Are there quantificational idioms that cannot be expressed with the familiar universal and existential quantifiers? How can logic be extended to capture modal notions like necessity and obligation? Does the material conditional adequately capture the meaning of 'if'—and if not, what are the alternatives? Should logical consequence be understood in terms of models or in terms of proofs? Can one intelligibly question the validity of basic logical principles like Modus Ponens or Double Negation Elimination? Is the fact that classical logic validates the inference from a contradiction to anything a flaw, and if so, how can logic be modified to repair it? How, exactly, is logic related to reasoning? Must classical logic be revised in order to be applied to vague language, and if so how? Each chapter is organized around suggested readings and includes exercises designed to deepen the reader's understanding. Key Features: An integrated treatment of the technical and philosophical issues comprising philosophical logic Designed to serve students taking only one course in logic beyond the introductory level Provides tools and concepts necessary to understand work in many areas of analytic philosophy Includes exercises, suggested readings, and suggestions for further exploration in each chapter

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Read Also This Books

Logic

By Greg Restall
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1134145985
  • Total of Pages : 240
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 917
  • Pdf File: logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The methods of logic are essential to an understanding of philosophy and are crucial in the study of mathematics, computing, linguistics and many other subjects. Introducing the major concepts and techniques involved in the study of logic, this authoritative book explores both formal and philosophical logic, and the ways in which we can achieve good reasoning. Individual chapters include: * Propositions and Arguments * Truth Tables * Trees * Conditionality * Natural Deduction * Predicates, Names and Quantifiers * Definite Descriptions. This exceptionally clear introduction to the subject is ideally suited to students taking introductory courses in logic.

Philosophical and Mathematical Logic

By Harrie de Swart
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 3030032558
  • Total of Pages : 539
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 932
  • Pdf File: philosophical-and-mathematical-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book was written to serve as an introduction to logic, with in each chapter – if applicable – special emphasis on the interplay between logic and philosophy, mathematics, language and (theoretical) computer science. The reader will not only be provided with an introduction to classical logic, but to philosophical (modal, epistemic, deontic, temporal) and intuitionistic logic as well. The first chapter is an easy to read non-technical Introduction to the topics in the book. The next chapters are consecutively about Propositional Logic, Sets (finite and infinite), Predicate Logic, Arithmetic and Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems, Modal Logic, Philosophy of Language, Intuitionism and Intuitionistic Logic, Applications (Prolog; Relational Databases and SQL; Social Choice Theory, in particular Majority Judgment) and finally, Fallacies and Unfair Discussion Methods. Throughout the text, the author provides some impressions of the historical development of logic: Stoic and Aristotelian logic, logic in the Middle Ages and Frege's Begriffsschrift, together with the works of George Boole (1815-1864) and August De Morgan (1806-1871), the origin of modern logic. Since "if ..., then ..." can be considered to be the heart of logic, throughout this book much attention is paid to conditionals: material, strict and relevant implication, entailment, counterfactuals and conversational implicature are treated and many references for further reading are given. Each chapter is concluded with answers to the exercises. Philosophical and Mathematical Logic is a very recent book (2018), but with every aspect of a classic. What a wonderful book! Work written with all the necessary rigor, with immense depth, but without giving up clarity and good taste. Philosophy and mathematics go hand in hand with the most diverse themes of logic. An introductory text, but not only that. It goes much further. It's worth diving into the pages of this book, dear reader! Paulo Sérgio Argolo

Introduction to Logic

By Irving M. Copi,Carl Cohen,Victor Rodych
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1351386964
  • Total of Pages : 696
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 565
  • Pdf File: introduction-to-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

For more than six decades, and for thousands of students, Introduction to Logic has been the gold standard in introductory logic texts. In this fifteenth edition, Carl Cohen and Victor Rodych update Irving M. Copi’s classic text, improving on its many strengths and introducing new and helpful material that will greatly assist both students and instructors. In particular, chapters 1, 8, and 9 have been greatly enhanced without disturbing the book’s clear and gradual pedagogical approach. Specifically: Chapter 1 now uses a simpler and better definition of "deductive validity," which enhances the rest of the book (especially chapters 1 and 8-10, and their new components). Chapter 8 now has: Simpler definitions of "simple statement" and "compound statement" More and more detailed examples of the Complete Truth-Table Method. Chapter 9 now has: A detailed, step-by-step account of the Shorter Truth-Table Method (with detailed step-by-step examples for conclusions of different types) A more complete and detailed account of Indirect Proof A detailed justification for Indirect Proof treating each of the three distinct ways in which an argument can be valid A new section on Conditional Proof, which complements the 19 Rules of Inference and Indirect Proof Explications of proofs of tautologies using both Indirect Proof and Conditional Proof A new section at the end of the chapter explaining the important difference between sound and demonstrative arguments. The Appendices now include: A new appendix on making the Shorter Truth-Table Technique (STTT) more efficient by selecting the most efficient sequence of STTT steps A new appendix on Step 1 calculations for multiple-line shorter truth tables A new appendix on unforced truth-value assignments, invalid arguments, and Maxims III-V. In addition, a Companion Website offers for Students: A Proof Checker Complete Truth Table Exercises Shorter Truth-Table Exercises A Truth-Table Video Venn Diagram Testing of Syllogisms Hundreds of True/False and Multiple Choice Questions for Instructors: An Instructor’s Manual A Solutions Manual www.routledge.com/cw/9781138500860

Introduction to Logic

By Irving M. Copi,Carl Cohen,Victor Rodych
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1351386972
  • Total of Pages : 696
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 354
  • Pdf File: introduction-to-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

For more than six decades, and for thousands of students, Introduction to Logic has been the gold standard in introductory logic texts. In this fifteenth edition, Carl Cohen and Victor Rodych update Irving M. Copi’s classic text, improving on its many strengths and introducing new and helpful material that will greatly assist both students and instructors. In particular, chapters 1, 8, and 9 have been greatly enhanced without disturbing the book’s clear and gradual pedagogical approach. Specifically: Chapter 1 now uses a simpler and better definition of "deductive validity," which enhances the rest of the book (especially chapters 1 and 8-10, and their new components). Chapter 8 now has: Simpler definitions of "simple statement" and "compound statement" More and more detailed examples of the Complete Truth-Table Method. Chapter 9 now has: A detailed, step-by-step account of the Shorter Truth-Table Method (with detailed step-by-step examples for conclusions of different types) A more complete and detailed account of Indirect Proof A detailed justification for Indirect Proof treating each of the three distinct ways in which an argument can be valid A new section on Conditional Proof, which complements the 19 Rules of Inference and Indirect Proof Explications of proofs of tautologies using both Indirect Proof and Conditional Proof A new section at the end of the chapter explaining the important difference between sound and demonstrative arguments. The Appendices now include: A new appendix on making the Shorter Truth-Table Technique (STTT) more efficient by selecting the most efficient sequence of STTT steps A new appendix on Step 1 calculations for multiple-line shorter truth tables A new appendix on unforced truth-value assignments, invalid arguments, and Maxims III-V. In addition, a Companion Website will offer: for Students: A Proof Checker Complete Truth Table Exercises Shorter Truth-Table Exercises A Truth-Table Video Venn Diagram Testing of Syllogisms Hundreds of True/False and Multiple Choice Questions for Instructors: An Instructor’s Manual A Solutions Manual www.routledge.com/cw/9781138500860

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By Lorne Falkenstein,Scott Stapleford,Molly Kao
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1000451275
  • Total of Pages : 666
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 991
  • Pdf File: logic-works.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Logic Works is a critical and extensive introduction to logic. It asks questions about why systems of logic are as they are, how they relate to ordinary language and ordinary reasoning, and what alternatives there might be to classical logical doctrines. The book covers classical first-order logic and alternatives, including intuitionistic, free, and many-valued logic. It also considers how logical analysis can be applied to carefully represent the reasoning employed in academic and scientific work, better understand that reasoning, and identify its hidden premises. Aiming to be as much a reference work and handbook for further, independent study as a course text, it covers more material than is typically covered in an introductory course. It also covers this material at greater length and in more depth with the purpose of making it accessible to those with no prior training in logic or formal systems. Online support material includes a detailed student solutions manual with a running commentary on all starred exercises, and a set of editable slide presentations for course lectures. Key Features Introduces an unusually broad range of topics, allowing instructors to craft courses to meet a range of various objectives Adopts a critical attitude to certain classical doctrines, exposing students to alternative ways to answer philosophical questions about logic Carefully considers the ways natural language both resists and lends itself to formalization Makes objectual semantics for quantified logic easy, with an incremental, rule-governed approach assisted by numerous simple exercises Makes important metatheoretical results accessible to introductory students through a discursive presentation of those results and by using simple case studies

Logic and Philosophy

By Howard Kahane,Alan Hausman,Frank Boardman
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Hackett Publishing
  • Book Code : 1624669360
  • Total of Pages : 464
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 888
  • Pdf File: logic-and-philosophy.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A comprehensive introduction to formal logic, Logic and Philosophy: A Modern Introduction is a rigorous yet accessible text, appropriate for students encountering the subject for the first time. Abundant, carefully crafted exercise sets accompanied by a clear, engaging exposition build to an exploration of sentential logic, first-order predicate logic, the theory of descriptions, identity, relations, set theory, modal logic, and Aristotelian logic. And as its title suggests, Logic and Philosophy is devoted not only to logic but also to the philosophical debates that led to the development of the field. Much new material has been added for the 13th edition. An introduction to set theory and its relationship to logic and mathematics, including philosophical issues, is now part of Chapter 13. Chapter 15 is an introduction to modal logic and Kripke semantics, concluding with a discussion of philosophical problems with any logical accommodation of modalities. Instructors who do not wish to present proof methods will find chapters on truth trees for both sentential and first-order logic, and a presentation of trees for modal logic. Special features of this text include presentations of the history of logic, alternatives to traditional methods of conditional and indirect proof, and a discussion of semantic problems with universal and existential instantiations. Throughout, the authors are sensitive to philosophical issues that arise from the relationship between ordinary language, symbolic logic, and justifications for the syntax and semantics of the various symbolic languages. Discussions range from the justification of the truth table for the sentential rendering of if . . . then statements to semantic and syntactic paradoxes, including some troubling paradoxes that arise in ordinary language (e.g., the so-called hangman or surprise quiz paradox). Logic and Philosophy includes ample material for a one-semester or two-semester course and provides a thorough preparation for more advanced logic courses.

A Companion to Philosophical Logic

By Dale Jacquette
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Book Code : 1405149949
  • Total of Pages : 832
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 495
  • Pdf File: a-companion-to-philosophical-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This collection of newly comissioned essays by international contributors offers a representative overview of the most important developments in contemporary philosophical logic. Presents controversies in philosophical implications and applications of formal symbolic logic. Surveys major trends and offers original insights.

Introduction to Logic

By Harry J Gensler
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Taylor & Francis
  • Book Code : 1317436113
  • Total of Pages : 418
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 884
  • Pdf File: introduction-to-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Introduction to Logic is clear and concise, uses interesting examples (many philosophical in nature), and has easy-to-use proof methods. Its key features, retained in this Third Edition, include: simpler ways to test arguments, including an innovative proof method and the star test for syllogisms; a wide scope of materials, suiting it for introductory or intermediate courses; engaging examples, from philosophy and everyday life; useful for self-study and preparation for standardized tests, like the LSAT; a reasonable price (a third the cost of some competitors); and exercises that correspond to the free LogiCola instructional program. This Third Edition: improves explanations, especially on areas that students find difficult; has a fuller explanation of traditional Copi proofs and of truth trees; and updates the companion LogiCola software, which now is touch friendly (for use on Windows tablets and touch monitors), installs more easily on Windows and Macintosh, and adds exercises on Copi proofs and on truth trees. You can still install LogiCola for free (from http://www.harryhiker.com/lc or http://www.routledge.com/cw/gensler).

Critical Thinking

By Max Black
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Pickle Partners Publishing
  • Book Code : 1789126339
  • Total of Pages : 345
  • Category : Psychology
  • Members : 359
  • Pdf File: critical-thinking.pdf

Book Short Summary:

I have tried to make this book an argument, not a catalogue of dogmas. Its ideal reader will find himself constantly asking questions, for which he will insist on finding his own answers. To avoid wasting his time, I have made the fullest use of authentic illustrations from newspapers, books, and other contemporary sources. One of the wisest things ever said about our subject is that “Logic, like whiskey, loses its beneficial effect when taken in too large doses.” While bearing this constantly in mind, I have also aimed at a high level of accuracy and the inclusion of nothing that would have to be unlearnt at a more advanced level of study. This book could never have been written without the help of the students to whom I have lectured on logic and scientific method. My chief obligations are to them. Logic ought to be easy, interesting, and enjoyable. This book will have been successful if it helps some readers to find it so.—Prof. Max Black

Philosophical Logic

By John P. Burgess
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Book Code : 1400830494
  • Total of Pages : 168
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 620
  • Pdf File: philosophical-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A brief account of philosophical logic from one of the world's leading authorities Philosophical Logic is a clear and concise critical survey of nonclassical logics of philosophical interest written by one of the world's leading authorities on the subject. After giving an overview of classical logic, John Burgess introduces five central branches of nonclassical logic (temporal, modal, conditional, relevantistic, and intuitionistic), focusing on the sometimes problematic relationship between formal apparatus and intuitive motivation. Requiring minimal background and arranged to make the more technical material optional, the book offers a choice between an overview and in-depth study, and it balances the philosophical and technical aspects of the subject. The book emphasizes the relationship between models and the traditional goal of logic, the evaluation of arguments, and critically examines apparatus and assumptions that often are taken for granted. Philosophical Logic provides an unusually thorough treatment of conditional logic, unifying probabilistic and model-theoretic approaches. It underscores the variety of approaches that have been taken to relevantistic and related logics, and it stresses the problem of connecting formal systems to the motivating ideas behind intuitionistic mathematics. Each chapter ends with a brief guide to further reading. Philosophical Logic addresses students new to logic, philosophers working in other areas, and specialists in logic, providing both a sophisticated introduction and a new synthesis.

Critical Thinking

By Robert Arp,Jamie Carlin Watson
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Book Code : 1472595696
  • Total of Pages : 464
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 593
  • Pdf File: critical-thinking.pdf

Book Short Summary:

'You shouldn't drink too much. The Earth is round. Milk is good for your bones.' Are any of these claims true? How can you tell? Can you ever be certain you are right? For anyone tackling philosophical logic and critical thinking for the first time, Critical Thinking: An Introduction to Reasoning Well provides a practical guide to the skills required to think critically. From the basics of good reasoning to the difference between claims, evidence and arguments, Robert Arp and Jamie Carlin Watson cover the topics found in an introductory course. Now revised and fully updated, this Second Edition features a glossary, chapter summaries, more student-friendly exercises, study questions, diagrams, and suggestions for further reading. Topics include: the structure, formation, analysis and recognition of arguments deductive validity and soundness inductive strength and cogency inference to the best explanation truth tables tools for argument assessment informal and formal fallacies With real life examples, advice on graduate school entrance exams and an expanded companion website packed with additional exercises, an answer key and help with real life examples, this easy-to-follow introduction is a complete beginner's tool set to good reasoning, analyzing and arguing. Ideal for students in basic reasoning courses and students preparing for graduate school.

A Concise Introduction to Mathematical Logic

By Wolfgang Rautenberg
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 1441912215
  • Total of Pages : 320
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Members : 417
  • Pdf File: a-concise-introduction-to-mathematical-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Mathematical logic developed into a broad discipline with many applications in mathematics, informatics, linguistics and philosophy. This text introduces the fundamentals of this field, and this new edition has been thoroughly expanded and revised.

Philosophy of Logic

By
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Book Code : 9780080466637
  • Total of Pages : 1218
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Members : 233
  • Pdf File: philosophy-of-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The papers presented in this volume examine topics of central interest in contemporary philosophy of logic. They include reflections on the nature of logic and its relevance for philosophy today, and explore in depth developments in informal logic and the relation of informal to symbolic logic, mathematical metatheory and the limiting metatheorems, modal logic, many-valued logic, relevance and paraconsistent logic, free logics, extensional v. intensional logics, the logic of fiction, epistemic logic, formal logical and semantic paradoxes, the concept of truth, the formal theory of entailment, objectual and substitutional interpretation of the quantifiers, infinity and domain constraints, the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem and Skolem paradox, vagueness, modal realism v. actualism, counterfactuals and the logic of causation, applications of logic and mathematics to the physical sciences, logically possible worlds and counterpart semantics, and the legacy of Hilbert’s program and logicism. The handbook is meant to be both a compendium of new work in symbolic logic and an authoritative resource for students and researchers, a book to be consulted for specific information about recent developments in logic and to be read with pleasure for its technical acumen and philosophical insights. - Written by leading logicians and philosophers - Comprehensive authoritative coverage of all major areas of contemporary research in symbolic logic - Clear, in-depth expositions of technical detail - Progressive organization from general considerations to informal to symbolic logic to nonclassical logics - Presents current work in symbolic logic within a unified framework - Accessible to students, engaging for experts and professionals - Insightful philosophical discussions of all aspects of logic - Useful bibliographies in every chapter

Worldviews

By Richard DeWitt
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Book Code : 1119118980
  • Total of Pages : 384
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 592
  • Pdf File: worldviews.pdf

Book Short Summary:

PRAISE FOR PREVIOUS EDITIONS "This is a brilliantly clear introduction (and indeed reframing) of the history and philosophy of science in terms of worldviews and their elements…. In addition, the book is incredibly well-informed from both a scientific and philosophical angle. Highly recommended." Scientific and Medical Network "Unlike many other introductions to philosophy of science, DeWitt's book is at once historically informative and philosophically thorough and rigorous. Chapter notes, suggested readings, and references enhance its value." Choice "Written in clear and comprehensible prose and supplemented by effective diagrams and examples, Worldviews is an ideal text for anyone new to the history and philosophy of science. As the reader will come to find out, DeWitt is a gifted writer with the unique ability to break down complex and technical concepts into digestible parts, making Worldviews a welcoming and not overwhelming book for the introductory reader." History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, vol. 28(2) Now in its third edition, Worldviews: An Introduction to the History and Philosophy of Science strengthens its reputation as the most accessible and teachable introduction to the history and philosophy of science on the market. Geared toward engaging undergraduates and those approaching the history and philosophy of science for the first time, this intellectually-provocative volume takes advantage of its author's extensive teaching experience, parsing complex ideas using straightforward and sensible examples drawn from the physical sciences. Building on the foundations which earned the book its critical acclaim, author Richard DeWitt considers fundamental issues in the philosophy of science through the historical worldviews that influenced them, charting the evolution of Western science through the rise and fall of dominant systems of thought. Chapters have been updated to include discussion of recent findings in quantum theory, general relativity, and evolutionary theory, and two new chapters exclusive to the third edition enrich its engagement with radical developments in contemporary science. At a time in modern history when the nature of truth, fact, and reality seem increasingly controversial, the third edition of Worldviews presents complex concepts with clarity and verve, and prepares inquisitive minds to engage critically with some of the most exciting questions in the philosophy of science.

A Mathematical Introduction to Logic

By Herbert Enderton,Herbert B. Enderton
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Book Code : 0080496466
  • Total of Pages : 317
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Members : 284
  • Pdf File: a-mathematical-introduction-to-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A Mathematical Introduction to Logic, Second Edition, offers increased flexibility with topic coverage, allowing for choice in how to utilize the textbook in a course. The author has made this edition more accessible to better meet the needs of today's undergraduate mathematics and philosophy students. It is intended for the reader who has not studied logic previously, but who has some experience in mathematical reasoning. Material is presented on computer science issues such as computational complexity and database queries, with additional coverage of introductory material such as sets. * Increased flexibility of the text, allowing instructors more choice in how they use the textbook in courses. * Reduced mathematical rigour to fit the needs of undergraduate students

The Philosophy Major’s Introduction to Philosophy

By Ken Akiba
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1000163210
  • Total of Pages : 190
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 242
  • Pdf File: the-philosophy-major-s-introduction-to-philosophy.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Many philosophy majors are shocked by the gap between the relative ease of lower-level philosophy courses and the difficulty of upper-division courses. This book serves as a necessary bridge to upper-level study in philosophy by offering rigorous but concise and accessible accounts of basic concepts and distinctions that are used throughout the discipline. It serves as a valuable advanced introduction to any undergraduate who is moving into upper-level courses in philosophy. While lower-level introductions to philosophy usually deal with popular topics accessible to the general student (such as contemporary moral issues, free will, and personal identity) in a piecemeal fashion, The Philosophy Major’s Introduction to Philosophy offers coverage of important general philosophical concepts, tools, and devices that may be used for a long time to come in various philosophical areas. The volume is helpfully divided between a focus on the relation between language and the world in the first three chapters and coverage of mental content in the final two chapters, but builds a coherent narrative from start to finish. It also provides ample study questions and helpful signposts throughout, making it a must-have for any student attempting to engage fully with the problems and arguments in philosophy. Key Features Integrates topics from various areas of philosophy, such as philosophy of language, metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and philosophical logic Provides descriptions of logico-mathematical tools necessary for philosophical studies, such as propositional logic, predicate logic, modal logic, set theory, mereology, and mathematical functions Makes connections with modern philosophy, including discussions of Descartes’s skepticism and dualism, Locke’s theory of personal identity, Hume’s theory of causation, and Kant’s synthetic a priori Includes well-known entertaining puzzles and thought experiments such as the Ship of Theseus, the Statue and the Clay, a Brain in a Vat, and Twin Earth Lists helpful Exercise Questions and Discussion Questions at the end of each chapter and answers selected questions at the back of the book

An Introduction to Logic - Second Edition

By Richard T.W. Arthur
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Broadview Press
  • Book Code : 1770486488
  • Total of Pages : 450
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 302
  • Pdf File: an-introduction-to-logic-second-edition.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In lively and readable prose, Arthur presents a new approach to the study of logic, one that seeks to integrate methods of argument analysis developed in modern “informal logic” with natural deduction techniques. The dry bones of logic are given flesh by unusual attention to the history of the subject, from Pythagoras, the Stoics, and Indian Buddhist logic, through Lewis Carroll, Venn, and Boole, to Russell, Frege, and Monty Python. A previous edition of this book appeared under the title Natural Deduction. This new edition adds clarifications of the notions of explanation, validity and formal validity, a more detailed discussion of derivation strategies, and another rule of inference, Reiteration.

Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy

By Bertrand Russell
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Cosimo, Inc.
  • Book Code : 1602062919
  • Total of Pages : 220
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 785
  • Pdf File: introduction-to-mathematical-philosophy.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Not to be confused with the philosophy of mathematics, mathematical philosophy is the structured set of rules that govern all existence. Or, in a word: logic. While this branch of philosophy threatens to be an intimidating and abstract subject, it is one that is surprisingly simple and necessarily sensible, particularly at the pen of writer Bertrand Russell, who infuses this work, first published in 1919, with a palpable and genuine desire to assist the reader in understanding the principles he illustrates. Anyone interested in logic and its development and application here will find a comprehensive and accessible account of mathematical philosophy, from the idea of what numbers actually are, through the principles of order, limits, and deduction, and on to infinity. British philosopher and mathematician BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM RUSSELL (1872-1970) won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950. Among his many works are Why I Am Not a Christian (1927), Power: A New Social Analysis (1938), and My Philosophical Development (1959).

Philosophical Propositions

By Jonathan Westphal
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1134698224
  • Total of Pages : 192
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 531
  • Pdf File: philosophical-propositions.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Philosophical Propositions is a fresh, up to date, and reliable introduction to philosophical problems. It takes seriously the need for philosophy to deal with definitive and statable propositions, such as God, certainty, time, personal identity, the mind/body problem, free will and determinism, and the meaning of life.

Logic: The Basics

By Jc Beall,Shay Allen Logan
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Taylor & Francis
  • Book Code : 1317528611
  • Total of Pages : 288
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 147
  • Pdf File: logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Logic: The Basics is an accessible introduction to several core areas of logic. The first part of the book features a self-contained introduction to the standard topics in classical logic, such as: · mathematical preliminaries · propositional logic · quantified logic (first monadic, then polyadic) · English and standard ‘symbolic translations’ · tableau procedures. Alongside comprehensive coverage of the standard topics, this thoroughly revised second edition also introduces several philosophically important nonclassical logics, free logics, and modal logics, and gives the reader an idea of how they can take their knowledge further. With its wealth of exercises (solutions available in the encyclopedic online supplement), Logic: The Basics is a useful textbook for courses ranging from the introductory level to the early graduate level, and also as a reference for students and researchers in philosophical logic.

Philosophical Introduction to Set Theory

By Stephen Pollard
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Courier Dover Publications
  • Book Code : 0486805824
  • Total of Pages : 192
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Members : 391
  • Pdf File: philosophical-introduction-to-set-theory.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This unique approach maintains that set theory is the primary mechanism for ideological and theoretical unification in modern mathematics, and its technically informed discussion covers a variety of philosophical issues. 1990 edition.

Puzzled?!

By Richard Kenneth Atkins
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Hackett Publishing
  • Book Code : 1624663672
  • Total of Pages : 256
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 933
  • Pdf File: puzzled.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Puzzled?! seamlessly fuses two traditional approaches to the study of philosophy at the introductory level. It is thematic, examining fundamental issues in epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of religion, and more. It is also historical, introducing major philosophical arguments that have arisen throughout the history of Western philosophy. But its real innovation lies elsewhere. Each of its twelve chapters begins with a traditional argument of a thoroughly puzzling kind: a valid philosophical argument with highly plausible premises but a surprising conclusion. The remainder of the chapter shows how major innovations in the history of philosophy arise as logical responses to that argument. Written with a light touch, Puzzled?! nevertheless offers a rigorous introduction to the ideas it explores and to the foundations of critical thinking itself. It will serve as effectively as a main or supplementary text in an introduction to critical thinking as it will in Philosophy 101.

Introduction to Formal Philosophy

By Sven Ove Hansson,Vincent F. Hendricks
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 3319774344
  • Total of Pages : 733
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 278
  • Pdf File: introduction-to-formal-philosophy.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This Undergraduate Textbook introduces key methods and examines the major areas of philosophy in which formal methods play pivotal roles. Coverage begins with a thorough introduction to formalization and to the advantages and pitfalls of formal methods in philosophy. The ensuing chapters show how to use formal methods in a wide range of areas. Throughout, the contributors clarify the relationships and interdependencies between formal and informal notions and constructions. Their main focus is to show how formal treatments of philosophical problems may help us understand them better. Formal methods can be used to solve problems but also to express new philosophical problems that would never have seen the light of day without the expressive power of the formal apparatus. ​Formal philosophy merges work in different areas of philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, computer science, linguistics, physics, psychology, biology, economics, political theory, and sociology. This title offers an accessible introduction to this new interdisciplinary research area to a wide academic audience.

Introducing Philosophy

By Neil Tennant
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1317560868
  • Total of Pages : 434
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 218
  • Pdf File: introducing-philosophy.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Written for any readers interested in better harnessing philosophy’s real value, this book covers a broad range of fundamental philosophical problems and certain intellectual techniques for addressing those problems. In Introducing Philosophy: God, Mind, World, and Logic, Neil Tennant helps any student in pursuit of a ‘big picture’ to think independently, question received dogma, and analyse problems incisively. It also connects philosophy to other areas of study at the university, enabling all students to employ the concepts and techniques of this millennia-old discipline throughout their college careers – and beyond. KEY FEATURES AND BENEFITS: -- Investigates the philosophy of various subjects (psychology, language, biology, math), helping students contextualize philosophy and view it as an interdisciplinary pursuit; also helps students with majors outside of philosophy to see the relationship between philosophy and their own focused academic pursuits -- Author comes from a distinguished background in Logic and Philosophy of Language, which gives the book a level of rigor, balance, and analytic focus sometimes missing from primers to philosophy -- Introduces students to various important philosophical distinctions (e.g. fact vs. value, descriptive vs. prescriptive, norms vs. laws of nature, analytic vs. synthetic, inductive vs. deductive, a priori vs. a posteriori) providing skills that are important for undergraduates to develop in order to inform their study at higher levels. They are essential for further work in philosophy but they are also very beneficial for students pursuing most other disciplines -- Is much more methodologically comprehensive than competing introductions, giving the student the ability to address a wide range of philosophical problems – and not just the ones reviewed in the book -- Offers a companion website with links to apt primary sources, organized chapter-by-chapter, making unnecessary a separate Reader/Anthology of primary sources – thus providing students with all reading material necessary for the course -- Provides five to ten discussion questions for each chapter, helping instructors and students better interact with the ideas and concepts in the text

Logic: A Complete Introduction: Teach Yourself

By Siu-Fan Lee
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Teach Yourself
  • Book Code : 1473608449
  • Total of Pages : 384
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 221
  • Pdf File: logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Understand Logic is a comprehensive introduction to this fascinating though sometimes challenging subject. As well as looking at logic in theoretical terms the book considers its everyday uses and demonstrates how it has genuine practical applications. It will take you step by step through the most difficult concepts and is packed with exercises to help you consolidate your learning at every stage. Covering everything from syllogistic logic to logical paradoxes and even looking at logic in Alice in Wonderland, this is the only guide you will ever need.

New Waves in Philosophical Logic

By G. Restall,G. Russell
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 1137003723
  • Total of Pages : 244
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Members : 936
  • Pdf File: new-waves-in-philosophical-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Philosophical logic has been, and continues to be, a driving force behind much progress and development in philosophy more broadly. This collection by up-and-coming philosophical logicians deals with a broad range of topics, including, for example, proof-theory, probability, context-sensitivity, dialetheism and dynamic semantics.

A Logical Introduction to Probability and Induction

By Franz Huber
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 0190845414
  • Total of Pages : 256
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Members : 159
  • Pdf File: a-logical-introduction-to-probability-and-induction.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A Logical Introduction to Probability and Induction is a textbook on the mathematics of the probability calculus and its applications in philosophy. On the mathematical side, the textbook introduces these parts of logic and set theory that are needed for a precise formulation of the probability calculus. On the philosophical side, the main focus is on the problem of induction and its reception in epistemology and the philosophy of science. Particular emphasis is placed on the means-end approach to the justification of inductive inference rules. In addition, the book discusses the major interpretations of probability. These are philosophical accounts of the nature of probability that interpret the mathematical structure of the probability calculus. Besides the classical and logical interpretation, they include the interpretation of probability as chance, degree of belief, and relative frequency. The Bayesian interpretation of probability as degree of belief locates probability in a subject's mind. It raises the question why her degrees of belief ought to obey the probability calculus. In contrast to this, chance and relative frequency belong to the external world. While chance is postulated by theory, relative frequencies can be observed empirically. A Logical Introduction to Probability and Induction aims to equip students with the ability to successfully carry out arguments. It begins with elementary deductive logic and uses it as basis for the material on probability and induction. Throughout the textbook results are carefully proved using the inference rules introduced at the beginning, and students are asked to solve problems in the form of 50 exercises. An instructor's manual contains the solutions to these exercises as well as suggested exam questions. The book does not presuppose any background in mathematics, although sections 10.3-10.9 on statistics are technically sophisticated and optional. The textbook is suitable for lower level undergraduate courses in philosophy and logic.

The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophical Logic

By Leon Horsten,Richard Pettigrew
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Book Code : 1472528298
  • Total of Pages : 656
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 724
  • Pdf File: the-bloomsbury-companion-to-philosophical-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Logical methods are used in all area of philosophy. By introducing and advancing central to topics in the discipline, The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophical Logic emphasizes the crucial role logic plays in understanding philosophical problems. Covering stages in the history of logic and of modern logic, this comprehensive Companion looks ahead to new areas of research and explores issues pertaining to classical logic and its rivals, semantics for parts of natural language, and the application of logic in the theory of rationality. Experts in the field provide a mix of technical chapters that offer excellent encyclopaedias of results in the area and chapters of philosophical discussions that survey a range of philosophical positions. To facilitate further study, this volumes also includes a series of research tools such as a detailed index, an up-to-date list of resources and an annotated bibliography. Balancing technical exposition with philosophical discussion, The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophical Logic not only provides students and lecturers with the basis of a course in philosophical logic, it offers anyone working in this key area of contemporary philosophy a valuable research resource.

Probability

By D.H. Mellor
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1134458606
  • Total of Pages : 176
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 603
  • Pdf File: probability.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Probability: A Philosophical Introduction introduces and explains the principal concepts and applications of probability. It is intended for philosophers and others who want to understand probability as we all apply it in our working and everyday lives. The book is not a course in mathematical probability, of which it uses only the simplest results, and avoids all needless technicality. The role of probability in modern theories of knowledge, inference, induction, causation, laws of nature, action and decision-making makes an understanding of it especially important to philosophers and students of philosophy, to whom this book will be invaluable both as a textbook and a work of reference. In this book D. H. Mellor discusses the three basic kinds of probability – physical, epistemic, and subjective – and introduces and assesses the main theories and interpretations of them. The topics and concepts covered include: * chance * frequency * possibility * propensity * credence * confirmation * Bayesianism. Probability: A Philosophical Introduction is essential reading for all philosophy students and others who encounter or need to apply ideas of probability.

The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic

By Alex Malpass,Marianna Antonutti Marfori
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Book Code : 1472507177
  • Total of Pages : 256
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 926
  • Pdf File: the-history-of-philosophical-and-formal-logic.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic introduces ideas and thinkers central to the development of philosophical and formal logic. From its Aristotelian origins to the present-day arguments, logic is broken down into four main time periods: Antiquity and the Middle Ages (Aristotle and The Stoics) The early modern period (Bolzano, Boole) High modern period (Frege, Peano & Russell and Hilbert) Early 20th century (Godel and Tarski) Each new time frame begins with an introductory overview highlighting themes and points of importance. Chapters discuss the significance and reception of influential works and look at historical arguments in the context of contemporary debates. To support independent study, comprehensive lists of primary and secondary reading are included at the end of chapters, along with exercises and discussion questions. By clearly presenting and explaining the changes to logic across the history of philosophy, The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic constructs an easy-to-follow narrative. This is an ideal starting point for students looking to understand the historical development of logic.

This Sentence is False

By Peter Cave
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Book Code : 1441122532
  • Total of Pages : 232
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 207
  • Pdf File: this-sentence-is-false.pdf

Book Short Summary:

An entertaining introduction to logic and reasoning, packed with puzzles and thought experiments for the reader to try "Peter Cave takes us on an edifying tour through the world of paradoxes, and there is much to be learned, as well as much enjoyment to be had, in the process." -Adrian W. Moore, University of Oxford, UK "'This sentence is false' is a sentence printed on the cover of this book. A sentence is not a name. So what is the name of the book? This book (whatever its name) is full of intriguing philosophical puzzles ... Paradoxes may seem trivial at first glance, but further thought reveals them to be challenges to some of our most fundamental beliefs and preconceptions. Peter Cave entertainingly escorts the reader through a great variety of these fascinating puzzles, shining light that is fresh and bright." -Laurence Goldstein, University of Kent, UK "This is a truly wonderful book. The topic is tough, but Peter Cave brings it to life. He manages to give new insights on old topics, which is itself remarkable, and he also brings in plenty of less familiar topics ... All in all, it is a joy to see such cleverness and clarity of thought coexisting with such an easy (and light and amusing) writing style." -Professor Imre Leader, Cambridge University, UK Put your neurons through their paces with this lively and engaging introduction to paradoxes. From "Buridan's Ass" and the "Surprise Examination" to "The Liar" and "Sleeping Beauty," This Sentence is False introduces all the key philosophical paradoxes. This fascinating guide to logic and reasoning is packed with puzzles and thought experiments to actively engage the reader in critical thinking. As well as paradoxes that occur in our everyday lives, topics also include God, ethics, political philosophy, space, and time. This Sentence is False will put your mind to the test, challenge what you think you know, and lead you on a fascinating journey through logical reasoning.