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By John MacFarlane ISBN Code: : 1351733567
 Publisher : Routledge
 Pages : 258
 Category : Computers
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 Pdf : philosophicallogic.pdf
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Introductory logic is generally taught as a straightforward technical discipline. In this book, John MacFarlane helps the reader think about the limitations of, presuppositions of, and alternatives to classical firstorder predicate logic, making this an ideal introduction to philosophical logic for any student who already has completed an introductory logic course. The book explores the following questions. Are there quantificational idioms that cannot be expressed with the familiar universal and existential quantifiers? How can logic be extended to capture modal notions like necessity and obligation? Does the material conditional adequately capture the meaning of 'if'—and if not, what are the alternatives? Should logical consequence be understood in terms of models or in terms of proofs? Can one intelligibly question the validity of basic logical principles like Modus Ponens or Double Negation Elimination? Is the fact that classical logic validates the inference from a contradiction to anything a flaw, and if so, how can logic be modified to repair it? How, exactly, is logic related to reasoning? Must classical logic be revised in order to be applied to vague language, and if so how? Each chapter is organized around suggested readings and includes exercises designed to deepen the reader's understanding. Key Features: An integrated treatment of the technical and philosophical issues comprising philosophical logic Designed to serve students taking only one course in logic beyond the introductory level Provides tools and concepts necessary to understand work in many areas of analytic philosophy Includes exercises, suggested readings, and suggestions for further exploration in each chapter
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 Pdf File: introductiontologic.pdf
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For more than six decades, and for thousands of students, Introduction to Logic has been the gold standard in introductory logic texts. In this fifteenth edition, Carl Cohen and Victor Rodych update Irving M. Copi’s classic text, improving on its many strengths and introducing new and helpful material that will greatly assist both students and instructors. In particular, chapters 1, 8, and 9 have been greatly enhanced without disturbing the book’s clear and gradual pedagogical approach. Specifically: Chapter 1 now uses a simpler and better definition of "deductive validity," which enhances the rest of the book (especially chapters 1 and 810, and their new components). Chapter 8 now has: Simpler definitions of "simple statement" and "compound statement" More and more detailed examples of the Complete TruthTable Method. Chapter 9 now has: A detailed, stepbystep account of the Shorter TruthTable Method (with detailed stepbystep examples for conclusions of different types) A more complete and detailed account of Indirect Proof A detailed justification for Indirect Proof treating each of the three distinct ways in which an argument can be valid A new section on Conditional Proof, which complements the 19 Rules of Inference and Indirect Proof Explications of proofs of tautologies using both Indirect Proof and Conditional Proof A new section at the end of the chapter explaining the important difference between sound and demonstrative arguments. The Appendices now include: A new appendix on making the Shorter TruthTable Technique (STTT) more efficient by selecting the most efficient sequence of STTT steps A new appendix on Step 1 calculations for multipleline shorter truth tables A new appendix on unforced truthvalue assignments, invalid arguments, and Maxims IIIV. In addition, a Companion Website offers for Students: A Proof Checker Complete Truth Table Exercises Shorter TruthTable Exercises A TruthTable Video Venn Diagram Testing of Syllogisms Hundreds of True/False and Multiple Choice Questions for Instructors: An Instructor’s Manual A Solutions Manual www.routledge.com/cw/9781138500860
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 Pdf File: introductiontologic.pdf
Book Short Summary:
For more than six decades, and for thousands of students, Introduction to Logic has been the gold standard in introductory logic texts. In this fifteenth edition, Carl Cohen and Victor Rodych update Irving M. Copi’s classic text, improving on its many strengths and introducing new and helpful material that will greatly assist both students and instructors. In particular, chapters 1, 8, and 9 have been greatly enhanced without disturbing the book’s clear and gradual pedagogical approach. Specifically: Chapter 1 now uses a simpler and better definition of "deductive validity," which enhances the rest of the book (especially chapters 1 and 810, and their new components). Chapter 8 now has: Simpler definitions of "simple statement" and "compound statement" More and more detailed examples of the Complete TruthTable Method. Chapter 9 now has: A detailed, stepbystep account of the Shorter TruthTable Method (with detailed stepbystep examples for conclusions of different types) A more complete and detailed account of Indirect Proof A detailed justification for Indirect Proof treating each of the three distinct ways in which an argument can be valid A new section on Conditional Proof, which complements the 19 Rules of Inference and Indirect Proof Explications of proofs of tautologies using both Indirect Proof and Conditional Proof A new section at the end of the chapter explaining the important difference between sound and demonstrative arguments. The Appendices now include: A new appendix on making the Shorter TruthTable Technique (STTT) more efficient by selecting the most efficient sequence of STTT steps A new appendix on Step 1 calculations for multipleline shorter truth tables A new appendix on unforced truthvalue assignments, invalid arguments, and Maxims IIIV. In addition, a Companion Website will offer: for Students: A Proof Checker Complete Truth Table Exercises Shorter TruthTable Exercises A TruthTable Video Venn Diagram Testing of Syllogisms Hundreds of True/False and Multiple Choice Questions for Instructors: An Instructor’s Manual A Solutions Manual www.routledge.com/cw/9781138500860
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 Pdf File: logicworks.pdf
Book Short Summary:
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 Publisher : Princeton University Press
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 Pdf File: aconciseintroductiontomathematicallogic.pdf
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 Publisher : Elsevier
 Book Code : 9780080466637
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 Pdf File: philosophyoflogic.pdf
Book Short Summary:
The papers presented in this volume examine topics of central interest in contemporary philosophy of logic. They include reflections on the nature of logic and its relevance for philosophy today, and explore in depth developments in informal logic and the relation of informal to symbolic logic, mathematical metatheory and the limiting metatheorems, modal logic, manyvalued logic, relevance and paraconsistent logic, free logics, extensional v. intensional logics, the logic of fiction, epistemic logic, formal logical and semantic paradoxes, the concept of truth, the formal theory of entailment, objectual and substitutional interpretation of the quantifiers, infinity and domain constraints, the LöwenheimSkolem theorem and Skolem paradox, vagueness, modal realism v. actualism, counterfactuals and the logic of causation, applications of logic and mathematics to the physical sciences, logically possible worlds and counterpart semantics, and the legacy of Hilbert’s program and logicism. The handbook is meant to be both a compendium of new work in symbolic logic and an authoritative resource for students and researchers, a book to be consulted for specific information about recent developments in logic and to be read with pleasure for its technical acumen and philosophical insights.  Written by leading logicians and philosophers  Comprehensive authoritative coverage of all major areas of contemporary research in symbolic logic  Clear, indepth expositions of technical detail  Progressive organization from general considerations to informal to symbolic logic to nonclassical logics  Presents current work in symbolic logic within a unified framework  Accessible to students, engaging for experts and professionals  Insightful philosophical discussions of all aspects of logic  Useful bibliographies in every chapter
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 Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
 Book Code : 1119118980
 Total of Pages : 384
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 Pdf File: worldviews.pdf
Book Short Summary:
PRAISE FOR PREVIOUS EDITIONS "This is a brilliantly clear introduction (and indeed reframing) of the history and philosophy of science in terms of worldviews and their elements…. In addition, the book is incredibly wellinformed from both a scientific and philosophical angle. Highly recommended." Scientific and Medical Network "Unlike many other introductions to philosophy of science, DeWitt's book is at once historically informative and philosophically thorough and rigorous. Chapter notes, suggested readings, and references enhance its value." Choice "Written in clear and comprehensible prose and supplemented by effective diagrams and examples, Worldviews is an ideal text for anyone new to the history and philosophy of science. As the reader will come to find out, DeWitt is a gifted writer with the unique ability to break down complex and technical concepts into digestible parts, making Worldviews a welcoming and not overwhelming book for the introductory reader." History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, vol. 28(2) Now in its third edition, Worldviews: An Introduction to the History and Philosophy of Science strengthens its reputation as the most accessible and teachable introduction to the history and philosophy of science on the market. Geared toward engaging undergraduates and those approaching the history and philosophy of science for the first time, this intellectuallyprovocative volume takes advantage of its author's extensive teaching experience, parsing complex ideas using straightforward and sensible examples drawn from the physical sciences. Building on the foundations which earned the book its critical acclaim, author Richard DeWitt considers fundamental issues in the philosophy of science through the historical worldviews that influenced them, charting the evolution of Western science through the rise and fall of dominant systems of thought. Chapters have been updated to include discussion of recent findings in quantum theory, general relativity, and evolutionary theory, and two new chapters exclusive to the third edition enrich its engagement with radical developments in contemporary science. At a time in modern history when the nature of truth, fact, and reality seem increasingly controversial, the third edition of Worldviews presents complex concepts with clarity and verve, and prepares inquisitive minds to engage critically with some of the most exciting questions in the philosophy of science.
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 Pdf File: amathematicalintroductiontologic.pdf
Book Short Summary:
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 Publisher : Cosimo, Inc.
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 Pdf File: introductiontomathematicalphilosophy.pdf
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 Book Code : 1134698224
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Book Short Summary:
Philosophical Propositions is a fresh, up to date, and reliable introduction to philosophical problems. It takes seriously the need for philosophy to deal with definitive and statable propositions, such as God, certainty, time, personal identity, the mind/body problem, free will and determinism, and the meaning of life.
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 Publisher : Taylor & Francis
 Book Code : 1317528611
 Total of Pages : 288
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 Pdf File: logic.pdf
Book Short Summary:
Logic: The Basics is an accessible introduction to several core areas of logic. The first part of the book features a selfcontained introduction to the standard topics in classical logic, such as: · mathematical preliminaries · propositional logic · quantified logic (first monadic, then polyadic) · English and standard ‘symbolic translations’ · tableau procedures. Alongside comprehensive coverage of the standard topics, this thoroughly revised second edition also introduces several philosophically important nonclassical logics, free logics, and modal logics, and gives the reader an idea of how they can take their knowledge further. With its wealth of exercises (solutions available in the encyclopedic online supplement), Logic: The Basics is a useful textbook for courses ranging from the introductory level to the early graduate level, and also as a reference for students and researchers in philosophical logic.
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 Publisher : Courier Dover Publications
 Book Code : 0486805824
 Total of Pages : 192
 Category : Mathematics
 Members : 391
 Pdf File: philosophicalintroductiontosettheory.pdf
Book Short Summary:
This unique approach maintains that set theory is the primary mechanism for ideological and theoretical unification in modern mathematics, and its technically informed discussion covers a variety of philosophical issues. 1990 edition.
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 Publisher : Hackett Publishing
 Book Code : 1624663672
 Total of Pages : 256
 Category : Philosophy
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 Pdf File: puzzled.pdf
Book Short Summary:
Puzzled?! seamlessly fuses two traditional approaches to the study of philosophy at the introductory level. It is thematic, examining fundamental issues in epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of religion, and more. It is also historical, introducing major philosophical arguments that have arisen throughout the history of Western philosophy. But its real innovation lies elsewhere. Each of its twelve chapters begins with a traditional argument of a thoroughly puzzling kind: a valid philosophical argument with highly plausible premises but a surprising conclusion. The remainder of the chapter shows how major innovations in the history of philosophy arise as logical responses to that argument. Written with a light touch, Puzzled?! nevertheless offers a rigorous introduction to the ideas it explores and to the foundations of critical thinking itself. It will serve as effectively as a main or supplementary text in an introduction to critical thinking as it will in Philosophy 101.
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 Total of Pages : 733
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 Pdf File: introductiontoformalphilosophy.pdf
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This Undergraduate Textbook introduces key methods and examines the major areas of philosophy in which formal methods play pivotal roles. Coverage begins with a thorough introduction to formalization and to the advantages and pitfalls of formal methods in philosophy. The ensuing chapters show how to use formal methods in a wide range of areas. Throughout, the contributors clarify the relationships and interdependencies between formal and informal notions and constructions. Their main focus is to show how formal treatments of philosophical problems may help us understand them better. Formal methods can be used to solve problems but also to express new philosophical problems that would never have seen the light of day without the expressive power of the formal apparatus. Formal philosophy merges work in different areas of philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, computer science, linguistics, physics, psychology, biology, economics, political theory, and sociology. This title offers an accessible introduction to this new interdisciplinary research area to a wide academic audience.
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 Pdf File: introducingphilosophy.pdf
Book Short Summary:
Written for any readers interested in better harnessing philosophy’s real value, this book covers a broad range of fundamental philosophical problems and certain intellectual techniques for addressing those problems. In Introducing Philosophy: God, Mind, World, and Logic, Neil Tennant helps any student in pursuit of a ‘big picture’ to think independently, question received dogma, and analyse problems incisively. It also connects philosophy to other areas of study at the university, enabling all students to employ the concepts and techniques of this millenniaold discipline throughout their college careers – and beyond. KEY FEATURES AND BENEFITS:  Investigates the philosophy of various subjects (psychology, language, biology, math), helping students contextualize philosophy and view it as an interdisciplinary pursuit; also helps students with majors outside of philosophy to see the relationship between philosophy and their own focused academic pursuits  Author comes from a distinguished background in Logic and Philosophy of Language, which gives the book a level of rigor, balance, and analytic focus sometimes missing from primers to philosophy  Introduces students to various important philosophical distinctions (e.g. fact vs. value, descriptive vs. prescriptive, norms vs. laws of nature, analytic vs. synthetic, inductive vs. deductive, a priori vs. a posteriori) providing skills that are important for undergraduates to develop in order to inform their study at higher levels. They are essential for further work in philosophy but they are also very beneficial for students pursuing most other disciplines  Is much more methodologically comprehensive than competing introductions, giving the student the ability to address a wide range of philosophical problems – and not just the ones reviewed in the book  Offers a companion website with links to apt primary sources, organized chapterbychapter, making unnecessary a separate Reader/Anthology of primary sources – thus providing students with all reading material necessary for the course  Provides five to ten discussion questions for each chapter, helping instructors and students better interact with the ideas and concepts in the text
Logic: A Complete Introduction: Teach Yourself
By SiuFan Lee File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
 Publisher : Teach Yourself
 Book Code : 1473608449
 Total of Pages : 384
 Category : Philosophy
 Members : 221
 Pdf File: logic.pdf
Book Short Summary:
Understand Logic is a comprehensive introduction to this fascinating though sometimes challenging subject. As well as looking at logic in theoretical terms the book considers its everyday uses and demonstrates how it has genuine practical applications. It will take you step by step through the most difficult concepts and is packed with exercises to help you consolidate your learning at every stage. Covering everything from syllogistic logic to logical paradoxes and even looking at logic in Alice in Wonderland, this is the only guide you will ever need.
New Waves in Philosophical Logic
By G. Restall,G. Russell File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
 Publisher : Springer
 Book Code : 1137003723
 Total of Pages : 244
 Category : Mathematics
 Members : 936
 Pdf File: newwavesinphilosophicallogic.pdf
Book Short Summary:
Philosophical logic has been, and continues to be, a driving force behind much progress and development in philosophy more broadly. This collection by upandcoming philosophical logicians deals with a broad range of topics, including, for example, prooftheory, probability, contextsensitivity, dialetheism and dynamic semantics.
A Logical Introduction to Probability and Induction
By Franz Huber File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
 Publisher : Oxford University Press
 Book Code : 0190845414
 Total of Pages : 256
 Category : Mathematics
 Members : 159
 Pdf File: alogicalintroductiontoprobabilityandinduction.pdf
Book Short Summary:
A Logical Introduction to Probability and Induction is a textbook on the mathematics of the probability calculus and its applications in philosophy. On the mathematical side, the textbook introduces these parts of logic and set theory that are needed for a precise formulation of the probability calculus. On the philosophical side, the main focus is on the problem of induction and its reception in epistemology and the philosophy of science. Particular emphasis is placed on the meansend approach to the justification of inductive inference rules. In addition, the book discusses the major interpretations of probability. These are philosophical accounts of the nature of probability that interpret the mathematical structure of the probability calculus. Besides the classical and logical interpretation, they include the interpretation of probability as chance, degree of belief, and relative frequency. The Bayesian interpretation of probability as degree of belief locates probability in a subject's mind. It raises the question why her degrees of belief ought to obey the probability calculus. In contrast to this, chance and relative frequency belong to the external world. While chance is postulated by theory, relative frequencies can be observed empirically. A Logical Introduction to Probability and Induction aims to equip students with the ability to successfully carry out arguments. It begins with elementary deductive logic and uses it as basis for the material on probability and induction. Throughout the textbook results are carefully proved using the inference rules introduced at the beginning, and students are asked to solve problems in the form of 50 exercises. An instructor's manual contains the solutions to these exercises as well as suggested exam questions. The book does not presuppose any background in mathematics, although sections 10.310.9 on statistics are technically sophisticated and optional. The textbook is suitable for lower level undergraduate courses in philosophy and logic.
The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophical Logic
By Leon Horsten,Richard Pettigrew File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
 Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
 Book Code : 1472528298
 Total of Pages : 656
 Category : Philosophy
 Members : 724
 Pdf File: thebloomsburycompaniontophilosophicallogic.pdf
Book Short Summary:
Logical methods are used in all area of philosophy. By introducing and advancing central to topics in the discipline, The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophical Logic emphasizes the crucial role logic plays in understanding philosophical problems. Covering stages in the history of logic and of modern logic, this comprehensive Companion looks ahead to new areas of research and explores issues pertaining to classical logic and its rivals, semantics for parts of natural language, and the application of logic in the theory of rationality. Experts in the field provide a mix of technical chapters that offer excellent encyclopaedias of results in the area and chapters of philosophical discussions that survey a range of philosophical positions. To facilitate further study, this volumes also includes a series of research tools such as a detailed index, an uptodate list of resources and an annotated bibliography. Balancing technical exposition with philosophical discussion, The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophical Logic not only provides students and lecturers with the basis of a course in philosophical logic, it offers anyone working in this key area of contemporary philosophy a valuable research resource.
Probability
By D.H. Mellor File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
 Publisher : Routledge
 Book Code : 1134458606
 Total of Pages : 176
 Category : Philosophy
 Members : 603
 Pdf File: probability.pdf
Book Short Summary:
Probability: A Philosophical Introduction introduces and explains the principal concepts and applications of probability. It is intended for philosophers and others who want to understand probability as we all apply it in our working and everyday lives. The book is not a course in mathematical probability, of which it uses only the simplest results, and avoids all needless technicality. The role of probability in modern theories of knowledge, inference, induction, causation, laws of nature, action and decisionmaking makes an understanding of it especially important to philosophers and students of philosophy, to whom this book will be invaluable both as a textbook and a work of reference. In this book D. H. Mellor discusses the three basic kinds of probability – physical, epistemic, and subjective – and introduces and assesses the main theories and interpretations of them. The topics and concepts covered include: * chance * frequency * possibility * propensity * credence * confirmation * Bayesianism. Probability: A Philosophical Introduction is essential reading for all philosophy students and others who encounter or need to apply ideas of probability.
The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic
By Alex Malpass,Marianna Antonutti Marfori File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
 Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
 Book Code : 1472507177
 Total of Pages : 256
 Category : Philosophy
 Members : 926
 Pdf File: thehistoryofphilosophicalandformallogic.pdf
Book Short Summary:
The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic introduces ideas and thinkers central to the development of philosophical and formal logic. From its Aristotelian origins to the presentday arguments, logic is broken down into four main time periods: Antiquity and the Middle Ages (Aristotle and The Stoics) The early modern period (Bolzano, Boole) High modern period (Frege, Peano & Russell and Hilbert) Early 20th century (Godel and Tarski) Each new time frame begins with an introductory overview highlighting themes and points of importance. Chapters discuss the significance and reception of influential works and look at historical arguments in the context of contemporary debates. To support independent study, comprehensive lists of primary and secondary reading are included at the end of chapters, along with exercises and discussion questions. By clearly presenting and explaining the changes to logic across the history of philosophy, The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic constructs an easytofollow narrative. This is an ideal starting point for students looking to understand the historical development of logic.
This Sentence is False
By Peter Cave File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
 Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
 Book Code : 1441122532
 Total of Pages : 232
 Category : Philosophy
 Members : 207
 Pdf File: thissentenceisfalse.pdf
Book Short Summary:
An entertaining introduction to logic and reasoning, packed with puzzles and thought experiments for the reader to try "Peter Cave takes us on an edifying tour through the world of paradoxes, and there is much to be learned, as well as much enjoyment to be had, in the process." Adrian W. Moore, University of Oxford, UK "'This sentence is false' is a sentence printed on the cover of this book. A sentence is not a name. So what is the name of the book? This book (whatever its name) is full of intriguing philosophical puzzles ... Paradoxes may seem trivial at first glance, but further thought reveals them to be challenges to some of our most fundamental beliefs and preconceptions. Peter Cave entertainingly escorts the reader through a great variety of these fascinating puzzles, shining light that is fresh and bright." Laurence Goldstein, University of Kent, UK "This is a truly wonderful book. The topic is tough, but Peter Cave brings it to life. He manages to give new insights on old topics, which is itself remarkable, and he also brings in plenty of less familiar topics ... All in all, it is a joy to see such cleverness and clarity of thought coexisting with such an easy (and light and amusing) writing style." Professor Imre Leader, Cambridge University, UK Put your neurons through their paces with this lively and engaging introduction to paradoxes. From "Buridan's Ass" and the "Surprise Examination" to "The Liar" and "Sleeping Beauty," This Sentence is False introduces all the key philosophical paradoxes. This fascinating guide to logic and reasoning is packed with puzzles and thought experiments to actively engage the reader in critical thinking. As well as paradoxes that occur in our everyday lives, topics also include God, ethics, political philosophy, space, and time. This Sentence is False will put your mind to the test, challenge what you think you know, and lead you on a fascinating journey through logical reasoning.