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A description of the historic monuments of Cyprus. Studies in the archaeology and architecture of the island

By George Jeffery
  • ISBN Code: : N.a
  • Publisher : Dalcassian Publishing Company
  • Pages : 445
  • Category : Cyprus
  • Reads : 943
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : a-description-of-the-historic-monuments-of-cyprus-studies-in-the-archaeology-and-architecture-of-the-island.pdf

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Read and download full book A description of the historic monuments of Cyprus. Studies in the archaeology and architecture of the island

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Skąd w takim razie wynika ta wielka religijność i oddanie sprawie krucjaty, która towarzyszy władcy Cypru w niemal wszystkich poematach i kronikach opisujących jego osobę? Zapewne w okresie młodości Piotra I towarzyszyła mu idea odzyskania Jerozolimy i ożywienia ruchu krucjatowego. Założył tajemniczy zakon, który przyciągał żarliwych zwolenników walki za krzyż z niewiernymi, a jego głównym celem było odzyskanie Jerozolimy. Piotr I zapewne z czasem doszedł do konstatacji, która odzwierciedlała rzeczywiste potrzeby jego kraju. Jako realista wiedział, że losy jego wyspy nie zależały od tego czy Jerozolima będzie chrześcijańska czy nie. Wiedział, że klucz do sukcesu leżał w ekonomii, w dochodach płynących do skarbca i w liczbie galer wpływających do portów cypryjskich. Co należało wobec tego zrobić w sytuacji kiedy kupcy uciekali z wyspy? Należało zniszczyć miejsce, gdzie się udawali. Aleksandrię. Jednak musimy zadać sobie pytanie - nawet hipotetyczne - czy wyprawa aleksandryjska mogła stanowić preludium do dalszych działań jak choćby do marszu na Kair czy nawet jeszcze dalej na Jerozolimę? Jest to mało prawdopodobne. Sytuacja ekonomiczno-polityczna Królestwa Cypru pozwalała Piotrowi I na przeprowadzenie ekspedycji o charakterze lokalnym. Kilku miesięczna czy nawet tygodniowa wyprawa krzyżowa zorganizowania w celu odzyskania utraconych posiadłości frankijskich w Syrii i Palestynie była zdecydowanie poza zasięgiem możliwości ekonomicznych i militarnych króla Cypru. Z uwagi na to, że Zachód nie był wówczas zainteresowany czynnym udziałem w krucjacie, możemy wysunąć wnioski, że marsz na Kair czy Jerozolimę bez pomocy krzyżowców z Europy był w praktyce niemożliwy. Niemniej można sobie zadać inne pytanie: na co liczył król Piotr I próbując skłonić władców i rycerstwo europejskie do uczestniczenia w jego wyprawie przeciwko Egiptowi? W końcu odbył podróż po Europie w latach 1362-1365, odwiedzając przy tej okazji wiele dworów europejskich, m.in. cesarską Pragę, Kraków, Wiedeń, Paryż, Londyn, Wenecję, Mediolan i Genuę oraz oczywiście Kurię Papieską w Awinionie. Na dworach okazywano mu wszędzie poparcie, był witany z największymi honorami, jednak za tym wszystkim nie szła żadna realna pomoc dla jego planów krucjatowych. W związku z tym zapewne król Cypru zdawał sobie sprawę, że udział rycerstwa zachodnioeuropejskiego będzie zdecydowanie mniejszy niż w poprzednich ekspedycjach. I najprawdopodobniej mu o to chodziło: wyprawa do Europy miała na celu zbadanie nastrojów krucjatowych w Europie oraz być może odwrócenie uwagi od prawdziwych intencji króla Cypru. Aleksandria została zdobyta w dniu 10 października 1365 roku. Frankowie przez kilka dni grabili wszystko co się dało zabrać, a niszczyli to co było dla nich bezużyteczne. Dokonywali gwałtów, niszczyli świątynie, magazyny, sklepy, domy. Mordowali mieszkańców miasta, zarówno tych wyznawania muzułmańskiego, jak i chrześcijan oraz Żydów. W końcu w dniu 16 października, na wieść o zbliżających się wojskach egipskich do miasta, krzyżowcy w pośpiechu zaczęli opuszczać Aleksandrię. Bez wątpienia opanowanie Aleksandrii przez krzyżowców króla Piotra I z Lusignan był wielkim sukcesem. Dla Zachodniej Europy upokorzenie sułtana mameluków, który trzymał w swoich rękach święte miejsca dla chrześcijan, było powodem do wielkiej radości. Na fali tego entuzjazmu wyrosła legenda wokół postaci króla Cypru, którego papież Urban nazywał atletą Chrystusa. Piotr I oczekiwał, że zniszczenie Aleksandrii nie tylko skłoni kupców z Zachodu do powrotu do portów cypryjskich, ale również wpłynie na ustępstwa gospodarcze sułtana Egiptu na rzecz Cypru. Jednak sułtan nie był skory do rozmów, co więcej przerwał wymianę handlową z Zachodem. W takiej sytuacji król Cypru próbował skłonić sułtana do zawarcia pokoju na korzystnych dla siebie warunkach poprzez nękające rajdy na egipskie i syryjskie wybrzeża jego państwa. Jednak przeciągające się działania wojenne odbijały się niekorzystnie na handlu lewantyńskim pomiędzy muzułmanami a Europejczykami, bowiem zarówno kupcy z Zachodniej Europy, głównie Wenecjanie i Katalończycy, jak i z Cypru, zaczęli się domagać zakończenia wojny i zawarcia pokoju z sułtanem. Również, aby ochłodzić zapał krucjatowy w Europie, który rozbudził się na wieść o zniszczeniu Aleksandrii, Wenecja przebiegle ogłosiła, że Piotr I zawarł pokój z sułtanem. Te działania miały doprowadzić do unormowania stosunków pomiędzy Cyprem a mamelukami co było w interesie chrześcijańskich kupców. Kiedy sułtan pozostawał niewzruszony na zabiegi króla Cypru ten w 1368 roku ponownie wyruszył na Zachód, aby znaleźć wsparcie pośród władców europejskich i przy odrobinie szczęścia zwerbować śmiałków gotowych do wzięciu udziału w kolejnych rajdach przeciwko muzułmanom w jakiejś większej ekspedycji. Jednak jego druga podróż okazała się całkowitą klęską, co jeszcze bardziej spotęgowało krytyczne nastroje na wyspie wobec władcy. Na pewno początków kryzysu Królestwa Cypru należy upatrywać w konsekwencjach wyprawy aleksandryjskiej. Cały okres panowania króla Piotra I był niezwykle wyczerpujący dla stosunkowo ograniczonych zasobów wyspy. Początkowe zwycięstwa władcy Cypru przysłoniły kurczące się możliwości jego państwa, które uwidoczniły się po zniszczeniu Aleksandrii. Długotrwała wojna z Mamelukami skłoniła część możnowładztwa cypryjskiego, niezadowolonego z coraz większych obciążeń ponoszonych na prowadzenie działań wojennych, do przeprowadzenia zamachu na króla. Destabilizacja sytuacji w kraju, jaka zapanowała po zabiciu króla Piotra I, pozornie pozwoliła doprowadzić do podpisania traktatu pokojowego z Egiptem. Niemniej z drugiej strony tak osłabionym państwem zainteresowali się Genueńczycy. Wkrótce doszło do wojny pomiędzy Genuą a Cyprem, a konflikt zakończyło podpisanie traktatu pokojowego w 1374 roku, którego postanowienia na blisko 100 lat zepchnęły Cypr w orbitę wpływów Republiki Genui.

Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus

By A. Bernard Knapp
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Book Code : 0191528692
  • Total of Pages : 520
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 459
  • Pdf File: prehistoric-and-protohistoric-cyprus.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A. Bernard Knapp presents a new island archaeology and island history of Bronze Age and early Iron Age Cyprus, set in its Mediterranean context. Drawing out tensions between different ways of thinking about islands, and how they are connected or isolated from surrounding islands and mainlands, Knapp addresses an under-studied but dynamic new field of archaeological enquiry - the social identity of prehistoric and protohistoric Mediterranean islanders. In treating issues such as ethnicity, migration, and hybridization, he provides an up-to-date theoretical analysis of a wide range of relevant archaeological data. In using historical documents to re-present the Cypriot past, he also offers an integrated archaeological and socio-historical synthesis of insularity and social identity on the Mediterranean's third largest island.

Geotechnical Engineering for the Preservation of Monuments and Historic Sites

By Emilio Bilotta,Alessandro Flora,Stefania Lirer,Carlo Viggiani
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Book Code : 1315887495
  • Total of Pages : 808
  • Category : Technology & Engineering
  • Members : 145
  • Pdf File: geotechnical-engineering-for-the-preservation-of-monuments-and-historic-sites.pdf

Book Short Summary:

All the traces of historic heritage are a fundamental part of our environment and reward us in the form of cultural enrichment, with the ability to have a positive effect both on our lifestyle and economy. Therefore, the preservation of ancient monuments, historic towns and sites has increasingly drawn the attention of public opinion, governmental

The Conservation of Archaeological Sites in the Mediterranean Region

By Marta De la Torre
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Getty Publications
  • Book Code : 0892364866
  • Total of Pages : 176
  • Category : Art
  • Members : 314
  • Pdf File: the-conservation-of-archaeological-sites-in-the-mediterranean-region.pdf

Book Short Summary:

One of the greatest challenges faced today by those responsible for ancient cultural sites is that of maintaining the delicate balance between conserving these fragile resources and making them available to increasing numbers of visitors. Tourism, unchecked development, and changing environmental conditions threaten significant historical sites throughout the world. These issues are among the topics dealt with in this book, which reports on the proceedings of an international conference on the conservation of classical sites in the Mediterranean region, organized by the Getty Conservation Institute and the J. Paul Getty Museum. The book includes chapters discussing management issues at three sites: Piazza Armerina, Sicily; Knossos, Crete; and Ephesus, Turkey. While visiting these sites, conference participants examined how issues raised at these locales can illuminate the challenges of management and conservation faced by complex heritage sites the world over. Additional chapters discuss such topics as the management of cultural sites, the reconstruction of ancient buildings, and ways of presenting and interpreting sites for today's visitors.

The Archaeology of Darkness

By Marion Dowd,Robert Hensey
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxbow Books
  • Book Code : 1785701924
  • Total of Pages : 144
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 395
  • Pdf File: the-archaeology-of-darkness.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Through time people have lived with darkness. Archaeology shows us that over the whole human journey people have sought out dark places, for burials, for votive deposition and sometimes for retreat or religious ritual away from the wider community. Thirteen papers explore Palaeolithic use of deep caves in Europe and the orientation of mortuary monuments in the Neolithic and Bronze Age. It examines how the senses are affected in caves and monuments that were used for ritual activities, from Bronze Age miners in Wales working in dangerous subterranean settings, to initiands in Italian caves, to a modern caver’s experience of spending time in the one of the world’s deepest caves in Russia. We see how darkness was and is viewed at northern latitudes where parts of the year are spent in eternal night, and in Easter Island where darkness provided communal refuge from the pervasive sun. We know that spending extended periods in darkness and silence can affect one physically, emotionally and spiritually. How did interactions between people and darkness affect individuals in the past and how were regarded by their communities? And how did this interaction transform places in the landscape? As the ever-increasing electrification of the planet steadily minimizes the amount of darkness in our lives, curiously, darkness is coming more into focus. This first collection of papers on the subject begins a conversation about the role of darkness in human experience through time.

Recycling and Reuse in the Roman Economy

By Chloë N. Duckworth,Andrew Wilson
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 0192604872
  • Total of Pages : 496
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 126
  • Pdf File: recycling-and-reuse-in-the-roman-economy.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The recycling and reuse of materials and objects were extensive in the past, but have rarely been embedded into models of the economy; even more rarely has any attempt been made to address the scale of these practices. Recent developments, including the use of large datasets, computational modelling, and high-resolution analytical chemistry are increasingly offering the means to reconstruct recycling and reuse, and even to approach the thorny issue of quantification. This volume is the first to bring together these new approaches, and the first to present a consideration of recycling and reuse in the Roman economy, taking into account a range of materials and using a variety of methodological approaches. It presents integrated, cross-referential evidence for the recycling and reuse of textiles, papyrus, statuary and building materials, amphorae, metals, and glass, and examines significant questions about organization, value, and the social meaning of recycling.

The Archaeology of the Colonized

By Michael Given
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 113420079X
  • Total of Pages : 200
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 703
  • Pdf File: the-archaeology-of-the-colonized.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The first book to integrate fully the archaeological study of the landscape with the concerns of colonial and postcolonial history, theory and scholarship, The Archaeology of the Colonized focuses on the experience of the colonized in their landscape setting, looking at case studies from areas of the world not often considered in the postcolonial debate. It offers original, exciting approaches to the growing area of research in archaeology and colonialism. From the pyramids of Old Kingdom Egypt to illicit whisky distilling in nineteenth-century Scotland, and from the Roman roads of Turkey to the threshing floors of Cyprus under British colonial rule, the case studies assist Dr. Given as he uses the archaeological evidence to create a vivid picture of how the lives and identities of farmers, artisans and labourers were affected by colonial systems of oppressive taxation, bureaucracy, forced labour and ideological control. This will be valuable to students, scholars or professionals investigating the relationship between local community and central control in a wide range of historical and archaeological contexts.

Management Planning for Archaeological Sites

By Loyola Marymount University
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Getty Publications
  • Book Code : 0892366915
  • Total of Pages : 158
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 449
  • Pdf File: management-planning-for-archaeological-sites.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Archaeological sites around the world are threatened by forces including population growth, development, urbanization, pollution, tourism, vandalism and looting. Site management planning is emerging as a critical element not only for the conservation of this heritage, but also to address issues such as tourism and sustainable development. This book reports on the proceedings of a workshop held in Greece, where an international group of professionals gathered to discuss challenges faced by archaeological sites in the Mediterranean and to examine management planning methods that might generate effective conservation strategies.

Near Eastern Archaeology

By Suzanne Richard
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Eisenbrauns
  • Book Code : 1575060833
  • Total of Pages : 486
  • Category : History
  • Members : 510
  • Pdf File: near-eastern-archaeology.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Annotation Filling a gap in classroom texts, more than 60 essays by major scholars in the field have been gathered to create the most up-to-date and complete book available on Levantine and Near Eastern archaeology. The book is divided into two sections: "Theory, Method, and Context," and "Cultural Phases and Topics," which together provide both methodological and areal coverage of the subject. The text is complemented by many line drawings and photographs. Includes a foreword by W.G. Dever.

Stone Conservation

By Clifford A. Price,Eric Doehne
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Getty Publications
  • Book Code : 1606060465
  • Total of Pages : 164
  • Category : Art
  • Members : 900
  • Pdf File: stone-conservation.pdf

Book Short Summary:

First published in 1996, this volume has been substantially updated to reflect new research in the conservation of stone monuments, sculpture, and archaeological sites.

Theology in Stone

By Richard Kieckhefer
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 0198035209
  • Total of Pages : 384
  • Category : Religion
  • Members : 780
  • Pdf File: theology-in-stone.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Thinking about church architecture has come to an impasse. Reformers and traditionalists are talking past each other. In Theology in Stone , Richard Kieckhefer seeks to help both sides move beyond the standoff toward a fruitful conversation about houses of worship. Drawing on a wide range of historical examples with an eye to their contemporary relevance, he offers refreshing new ideas about the meanings and uses of church architecture.

The Sumerians

By Samuel Noah Kramer
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : University of Chicago Press
  • Book Code : 0226452328
  • Total of Pages : 372
  • Category : History
  • Members : 409
  • Pdf File: the-sumerians.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Sumerians, the pragmatic and gifted people who preceded the Semites in the land first known as Sumer and later as Babylonia, created what was probably the first high civilization in the history of man, spanning the fifth to the second millenniums B.C. This book is an unparalleled compendium of what is known about them. Professor Kramer communicates his enthusiasm for his subject as he outlines the history of the Sumerian civilization and describes their cities, religion, literature, education, scientific achievements, social structure, and psychology. Finally, he considers the legacy of Sumer to the ancient and modern world. "There are few scholars in the world qualified to write such a book, and certainly Kramer is one of them. . . . One of the most valuable features of this book is the quantity of texts and fragments which are published for the first time in a form available to the general reader. For the layman the book provides a readable and up-to-date introduction to a most fascinating culture. For the specialist it presents a synthesis with which he may not agree but from which he will nonetheless derive stimulation."—American Journal of Archaeology "An uncontested authority on the civilization of Sumer, Professor Kramer writes with grace and urbanity."—Library Journal

Historical Painting Techniques, Materials, and Studio Practice

By Arie Wallert
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Getty Publications
  • Book Code : 0892363223
  • Total of Pages : 240
  • Category : Art
  • Members : 494
  • Pdf File: historical-painting-techniques-materials-and-studio-practice.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Bridging the fields of conservation, art history, and museum curating, this volume contains the principal papers from an international symposium titled "Historical Painting Techniques, Materials, and Studio Practice" at the University of Leiden in Amsterdam, Netherlands, from June 26 to 29, 1995. The symposium—designed for art historians, conservators, conservation scientists, and museum curators worldwide—was organized by the Department of Art History at the University of Leiden and the Art History Department of the Central Research Laboratory for Objects of Art and Science in Amsterdam. Twenty-five contributors representing museums and conservation institutions throughout the world provide recent research on historical painting techniques, including wall painting and polychrome sculpture. Topics cover the latest art historical research and scientific analyses of original techniques and materials, as well as historical sources, such as medieval treatises and descriptions of painting techniques in historical literature. Chapters include the painting methods of Rembrandt and Vermeer, Dutch 17th-century landscape painting, wall paintings in English churches, Chinese paintings on paper and canvas, and Tibetan thangkas. Color plates and black-and-white photographs illustrate works from the Middle Ages to the 20th century.

Communities, Landscapes, and Interaction in Neolithic Greece

By Apostolos Sarris,Evita Kalogiropoulou,Tuna Kalayci,Evagelia Karimali
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Berghahn Books
  • Book Code : 1789201462
  • Total of Pages : 512
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 656
  • Pdf File: communities-landscapes-and-interaction-in-neolithic-greece.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The last three decades have witnessed a period of growing archaeological activity in Greece that have enhanced our awareness of the diversity and variability of ancient communities. New sites offer rich datasets from many aspects of material culture that challenge traditional perceptions and suggest complex interpretations of the past. This volume provides a synthetic overview of recent developments in the study of Neolithic Greece and reconsiders the dynamics of human-environment interactions while recording the growing diversity in layers of social organization. It fills an essential lacuna in contemporary literature and enhances our understanding of the Neolithic communities in the Greek Peninsula.

The Buried

By Peter Hessler
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Penguin
  • Book Code : 0525559574
  • Total of Pages : 480
  • Category : Political Science
  • Members : 175
  • Pdf File: the-buried.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A National Book Critics Circle Award Finalist "Extraordinary...Sensitive and perceptive, Mr. Hessler is a superb literary archaeologist, one who handles what he sees with a bit of wonder that he gets to watch the history of this grand city unfold, one day at a time.” —Wall Street Journal From the acclaimed author of River Town and Oracle Bones, an intimate excavation of life in one of the world's oldest civilizations at a time of convulsive change Drawn by a fascination with Egypt's rich history and culture, Peter Hessler moved with his wife and twin daughters to Cairo in 2011. He wanted to learn Arabic, explore Cairo's neighborhoods, and visit the legendary archaeological digs of Upper Egypt. After his years of covering China for The New Yorker, friends warned him Egypt would be a much quieter place. But not long before he arrived, the Egyptian Arab Spring had begun, and now the country was in chaos. In the midst of the revolution, Hessler often traveled to digs at Amarna and Abydos, where locals live beside the tombs of kings and courtiers, a landscape that they call simply al-Madfuna: "the Buried." He and his wife set out to master Arabic, striking up a friendship with their instructor, a cynical political sophisticate. They also befriended Peter's translator, a gay man struggling to find happiness in Egypt's homophobic culture. A different kind of friendship was formed with the neighborhood garbage collector, an illiterate but highly perceptive man named Sayyid, whose access to the trash of Cairo would be its own kind of archaeological excavation. Hessler also met a family of Chinese small-business owners in the lingerie trade; their view of the country proved a bracing counterpoint to the West's conventional wisdom. Through the lives of these and other ordinary people in a time of tragedy and heartache, and through connections between contemporary Egypt and its ancient past, Hessler creates an astonishing portrait of a country and its people. What emerges is a book of uncompromising intelligence and humanity--the story of a land in which a weak state has collapsed but its underlying society remains in many ways painfully the same. A worthy successor to works like Rebecca West's Black Lamb and Grey Falcon and Bruce Chatwin's The Songlines, The Buried bids fair to be recognized as one of the great books of our time.